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  4 TH  ESO MODAL VERBS REVISION. Modals of Ability: Can, Could, Be able to, May, Might Introduction These five verbs are examples of modal verbs . ∙ can ∙ could ∙  be able to ∙ may ∙ might Modal verbs are helping/auxiliary verbs that express ideas like ability , permission , possibility , and necessity . Many modal verbs have more than one meaning. They are always followed by the simple form of a verb. For example, Alan can  swim well. This shows that Alan has the ability to swim. 1. Modals for Ability Let’s start with expressing ability ! We use can, be able to and  could  to show that someone has (or doesn’t have) an ability to do something. Look at these examples: Present/Future Ability Negative Past Ability Negative Alan can swim well. Jackie cannot play  piano. Paul could speak Chinese when he was a child. Mary couldn’t finish her homework last night. I can meet you after school. We can’t visit Vancouver this weekend. Last night, there were no clouds in the sky and they could see all the stars. You couldn’t find the website this morning, could you? I am able to speak two languages. I am not able to speak Arabic. When I was a young child, I wasn’t able to tie my shoes. I wasn’t able to finish my test yesterday. Brenda is able to run quickly. Stacey isn’t able to finish a marathon. Shaun was able to complete the assignment. Paula wasn’t able to  pass the class. You are able to  program a computer. We aren’t able to make a reservation tonight. They were able to catch six fish on their trip. You weren’t able to understand the answer, were you? Did you notice that the verbs after  “can/could/be able to” are always in the simple form? For example: Alan can swim well. (subject + auxiliary verb + simple verb + ...) Do NOT change the modal auxiliary OR the main verb for he/she/it  subjects. In addition, do not add “ing” or “ed”. Alan can swims well. Wrong! Alan can to swim well. Wrong! Alan can swimming well. Wrong! Alan could swam well. Wrong! How can we make questions about ability? It’s easy! Modal auxiliary + subject + main verb + ... ?  Can  she play guitar? Could  you speak English when you were a child? BE + subject + able to + main verb + ... ? Are you  able to  understand the homework? Were you  able to  finish the test? Was he  able to  pass the exam?  Notice that we do not need  the verbs “do/does/did” when we make questions! The modal verb “be able to” includes the word “to”; the “to” is not an infinitive. 2. Modals for Possibility Let’s learn about expressing possibility  now. The verbs may,   might  and could show possibility now and in the future. In this case, they have the same meaning. Look at this conversation: A: My mother said that it may snow  tomorrow. B: Really? It might snow ?! That’s great! I could make  a snowman or go for a “snow” walk. A: Don’t get too excited. If the temperature is high, it may not snow . It may rain. B: Well, I guess I could  still go  for a walk in the rain. Be careful with may + “be”  and “maybe” . Compare these sentences. Both are correct. Ann is not here today. She may be  sick. “may be” is a modal. Ann is not here today. Maybe  she is sick. “Maybe” is an adverb. 3. Modals for Permission Finally, let’s look at ways to ask for and give permission . We use may, could and can  to do this. Formality Example most formal/polite May  I go to the washroom? *only used with “I” and “we” medium formal Could  I borrow your dictionary? Could  he pay you tomorrow? casual Can  I call you back later? Can  she have a cookie?  Now, look at the (main) verbs  that come after the subject. They are always in the simple form , just as with other modal verbs. Again, the most polite/formal way to answer these questions  is with “may.” Examples: May  I go to the washroom? Yes, you may  (go to the washroom). Yes, you can.  No, you may not.  No, you cannot. Can  she have a cookie? Yes, she can.  No, she can’t.  Notice that we do not  “contract” may + not = mayn’t. Wrong!  Can’t  and couldn’t  are common contractions, however. When you are sure that you understand the lesson, you can continue with the exercises. 1.____________ I borrow your dictionary?  A. ? Am I able to B. ? May C. ? Might 2.____________ you play the piano when you were a child? A. ? Can B. ? May C. ? Could 3.When Vera was young, she ____________ type quickly. She took a typing class and now she  ____________ type very quickly! A. ? could not / can B. ? can / could C. ? could not / can to 4.____________ dogs fly? No, of course not! A. ? Do can B. ? Can C. ? May 5.George is absent from class today. He ____________ be sick. A. ? could B. ? is able to C. ? can 6.She ____________ understand Korean very well, but she ____________ speak it perfectly. A. ? be able to / cannot B. ? is able to / is able to C. ? is able to / cannot 7.Peter ____________ swim when he was a child, but now he ____________. In fact, he swims every day! A. ? could / can't B. ? couldn't / can C. ? couldn't / can't 8.My cat ____________ jump, but it ____________ talk. A. ? can / can't B. ? can't / can 9.The little girl asked, Mommy, ____________ I have a cookie? The mother said, Yes, you  ____________. A. ? can / are able to B. ? can / can C. ? may / might 10.Sara ____________ Italian food and she ____________ French food too! A. ? can cook / is able to cook B. ? can cooks / can cooks C. ? can cooking / can cooking 11.The family can't decide where to go on vacation. They ____________ go to Los Angeles or they ____________ go to Hawaii. A. ? could / couldn't B. ? might / may C. ? may / are able to 12.Kevin was disappointed because he ____________ get tickets for the football game. A. ? weren't able to B. ? wasn't able to 13.I'm going to bring an umbrella today because it ____________ rain. A. ? is able to B. ? can C. ? might Modals of Ability 2 - Can, Could, Be able to, May, Might Use the best modal to complete each sentence; use a negative form when necessary.  14.Type all of your answers in the spaces and then and click on Check answers . If you need help, click Show a letter . 15.Principio del formulario 16.1. I borrow your pencil? Thanks! 2. James and Sara were so sad because they go to their brother's wedding. They were too sick. 3. The students understand the instructions for the test yesterday, so many of them failed. 4. A: We have a big problem. What we do? B: I don't know. Maybe we ask our boss for help. 5. When Tina was a child, she speak three languages: French, Arabic and English. She rarely  practiced French, so she speak it anymore. 6. I'm sorry. I hear you. Please speak more loudly. 7. My little brother play piano and guitar. 8. Excuse me. I ask you a question? 9. A:What are you going to do on the weekend? B: I'm not sure yet. We go to a movie or we stay home and relax. 10. I go to school tomorrow because I'm feeling sick right now. I'm not sure. 17.Final del formulario Modals of Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better Introduction These three verbs are modal verbs . ∙ should ∙ ought to ∙ had better Modal verbs are helping/auxiliary verbs that express ideas like ability , advice , and obligation . Many modal verbs have more than one meaning. They are always followed by the simple form of a verb. For example: Amanda should go to the doctor. This shows that we think it is a good idea for Amanda to visit the doctor. Modals for Advice Let's learn how to give advice ! English speakers use the modal verbs “should,” “ought to” and “had better” to express that they think something is a good (or a bad) idea. “Should” is the most common way to give advice. Look at these examples: Affirmative Negative Question
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