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0 F T H E ~" 1. To serve as a referen ~ source. 01' SN~G st~ff;,\:,.1 '" ). ~ 'f? '. \..r'...j..-,

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THE G E N E R A L C OtlDITI o N c. 0 F T H E ~ Po. L A BAM A N E G R 0 \ This paper is a report publ ished by the ~tudent Nonviol ent Coordinating Committee. It is general in scope and is designed
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THE G E N E R A L C OtlDITI o N c. 0 F T H E ~ Po. L A BAM A N E G R 0 \ This paper is a report publ ished by the ~tudent Nonviol ent Coordinating Committee. It is general in scope and is designed to accomplish four pur poses:. ' . 1. To serve as a referen ~ source. 01' SN~G st~ff;,\:,.1 ' ). ~ 'f? '. \..r'...j..-, 2. To serve as a counternart to an earlier SNCC publication, The Gen~al Condi rion of' the '1ississippi Uegro , and- to afford the possibility of comparing ~oljditiqhs '~ bour stp.tes so as to clarify difli?'ent- appreabhes tha.rt may or may not be required; 'I -.,- ~I) , )- 'f', ~ 3. To indicate gui~-el-ifies foj1 fut;:;re J, mb r,e ' ct'e - \ tailed studies.; c.~~\ 4. To expose to th~ eye. 6.( t h~ genqal l'up~~.:g, ~ \ certain shameful rac;:t s. o:;b6ut hpl:l ld, l lirgf!,.,,,um- ~ ( : i bel' of Ameri.;:a.n 'Cit~zens live in Al~bama. ' ~ -... \; \'.tl:j,e!,.. _~_. ~fr1. ',.1.~.. The statistics cited 1'n' t h i 's p'a tl'er ft repre:5'en t '~ peqp-le, v I. ' no matter hoh this maci. ~eate ' d'iff;icu2~~e's.~ in l ~~e mi~ ~b , of more fortunate Anjer. can s T'-lho -'-would pr e f er tat 't:1i~ statistics were merely 1\lt1m'~ra. !)'~~. ',':_(. \...}~., :.J j - --.;-. -. ' ~ ~ '\ ,.,......',\ tic ., I In this report th.e_:t.~~.;~~ J:r±~ 11's\.u's~ '1~t. ei'e',j:ra '/ ---i ably with NegI,'o. ACQ9~~'lrilt~,Yh\; Q... S... C.e s..1i1 ~ ~q:oy!;\ l?ll Po- labama Lor 1960, 0 ' ~.9% i-9'f J t 1f~.pop ~l'$,t':hoj;l '}~k ( riabara ' I ~s non-negro and non-~hj. te _anq,. 01.!lQ eth~ efo~e ;tn-'ol' ''' eluded in the. categor\,p Nqo;i K..l- 't fl',,_. i' /' o'f! i! I'~.~ ;--.r- UC1J:E!.~ L~l A1Pill ~.lo /' ~'~ 4 'Ot U5 - ~ :::~::::::::;-~::,:-,:-::~ ~'::' ::'.~... ==' Student Nonviolent Coordinati~Commlt e 8 Raymond St ~~ 'd.l.';w ~ I, Atlanta Georgia ',' -, ~ho9{~: '1fl3lf-'- 6':H'l '0 '1 fi~l --) _ ~.-r ~ lc:.. ! iu(.1(vf rr-toj. -01 T5irr~o r o 'r::,~~1 Harch, 1965,, \ ':::=-.,----..l r r.. '11 ') ;. J.... t, r 0 -+ r- r lr CI f \ 1,,-, -:; , ::- rt.c l([ VF; rf ~ t. Al4 21 ~5~6 b~~f~rl2 t ~J~t ~srl~ e~o~ 9 ~~ rtw 0'1. ';-,t 2L 29l:jf1lfO~ 3ti:t ~r~ r l~v~ ~~5 Z~~l't2tn ALABAMA 2J,B8t ; DI, ') q't7~ ~... o 10 _ _...a 21,3/0 a,' ''5 _' 0/. Map of Alaba~a, showinf counties, t heir total population, and their percent Hegro po pulation. Shaded area is the lacy Ilelt, an area wh e r e more than 4 4 ~ of the po pulation of the counties is Ncrro. Conr r nssional Districts are outlineo with heavy linc s. CONTENTS PART 1, POPULATION . .. Growth in Population Number and Proportion Birth Rates Death Rates Infant Mortality Fetal ~lortali ty Neonatal Mortality Maternal Mortality Significant Population Characteristics Changes in the Population Urban-Rural Distribution County Variations Cities of 1~_~~~ ~ ~ page 1 Composition of the Laber ~crce Unemployment Industry and Occupational Oistribution Pattern of Une.ploysent PJ\.RT 3, InCOME 20 Income of Persons. Incoae of Fanilies PART ~, EDUCATION School Years Completed PART 5, HOUSING ,, ,, ,,,, ,, ., 1 Ilegro Housing Conditions and Facilities PART 6, VOTER REGISTRATION DATA Denial of the Right to Vote, County Tablulation Justice Department A~tivities Qualifications to Register to Vote In all charts the following symbols apply: Ilonwhi te 1-Jhite More detailed statistics on those Alabama counties with 44% Negro population or more is available from the Atlanta slice office. PART 1, POPULATION Growth ~n the Population Number and Proportion - In 1960, 983,131 Negroes constituted 30.1% of the total 3,266,740 population of Alabama. There has been a steady decline in the proportion of black people to whites in the state, although the rate of this decrease has slowed in recent decades. This declining proportion of Nonwhites results most noticably from the marked increase in the white population, while the nonwhite population has remained fairly constant. ( Table 1 and Chart 1) The state as a whole has steadily grown in total population since 1900, while the nonwhite population has, in fact, decreased from what it was in Birth Rates - ( Table 2 and Chart 2 ) The llegro birth rate has ~ncreasea considerably since the end of the depression '3 0's and stands at hil;her levels than the vlhite!'1. Increased llep;ro birth rate would tend to imply better registration of vital statistics and/or better health facilities reducing childbirth related deaths. The latter statement reauires aualification in the light of figures that follow later in this report. The white birth rate has been steady to declining. The overall Negro population is kept fairly constant by migration out of the state and higher death rates; just as the white population increases because of migration of more whites to Alabama than away from Alabama, and because of lower death rates. Death Rates - ( Table 3 and Chart 3 ) Overall death rates in Alabama are decreasing for both whites and nonwhites. The death rates for nonwhites, however, remain consistently higher than, the white death rates. The death rate for nonwhites in 1960 was higher than the death rate for whites in 1925, the first year for which we have statistics. Clearly this reflects the results of separate-but- equal standards of living and health facilities. Infant Mortality - ( Table 4 and Chart 4 ) The death rate for infants under one year of age is shockingly high for nonwhites as compared to whites. It is decreasing for both racial groups, but still nearly twice as many Negro babies as white babies die before their first birthdays. The death rate for Negro babjes in 1962 was at about the same level as that for white babies in the early 1940's -- only about twenty years behind whites in this matter of life. Fetal Death Rates - ( Table 5 and Chart 5 ) The fetal death rate ~s a measure of the death rate of unborn children from 20 weeks old to their birth. It can thus be an indirect measure of the kin~ of care a pregnant woman receives and the conditions under which she lives. The fetal death rate for nonwhites has been 2 consistently high; since 1950 it has been at least twice as high as the white fetal death rate. There is no indication of a trend toward decreasing these death rates. Neonatal Death Rates - ( Table 6 and Chart 6 ) This statistic measures the number of deaths of babies under 28 days old in each 1,000 live births. Premature babies must receive hospital care during this period to assure their survival. The statistic thus indicates the fate of most premature babies and is a measure of the hospital and maternity care available to Negroes in Alabama. The neonatal death rate is consistently at least 30% h i gher for JJegro babies than white babies. Maternal Death Rates - ( Table 7 and Chart 7 ) Since 1927 mothers of both races have increasingly survived the perils of childbirth. But in 1962 five times as many Negro mothers as white mothers died as a result of childbirth. In this same year 98.3% of the white mothers bore their children in hospitals with the assistance of a physician; only 56.5% of the Negro mothers were so fortunate. Significant Population Characteristics Changes in the Population - ( Table 8 and Chart 8 ) While the total populatlon of the state increased in the period , both the Negro and white population in the age group years old decreased. A similar decrease occurred for Negroes in the group years of age. This age span for Negroes, 20-44,represents the period of their lives in which they are most likely to find employment. The greate~ number evidently choose to take their chances outside of Alabama. The overall increase in white population was ten times that of the increase in JJegro population. Urban-Rural Distribution - ( Tables 9 and 10 ) Negroes and whites are dlstrlbuted falrly equally between urban and rural areas of the state. The main concentration of Negroes, however, is in the southern and rural part of the state. ( see map) Urban Alabama has grown considerably in Both Negroes and whites contributed to this increase, although whites mainly account for the growth of Alabama cities. At the same time, Negroes left the rural area in greater proportion than whites. County Variations - ( Table 11 ) Counties located in the southern rural part of the state have, for the most part, lost population in the out-of-county migration. These are the counties with the highest ~ercentage of Negroes. The counties that have made considerable gains in population are located in the northeast and north central parts of the state where there is heavy industry along the Tennesse River and The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a large installation at Huntsville. Also the 3 counties on Mobile Bay have grown considerably. Each of these three growth areas are economically affluent. Otherwise, county growth reflects the general growth of the cities located therein. Counties with the largest population are Jefferson, Madison, Mo bile, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa. There are 21 counties with over 40% nonwhite population. It should be noted that northern counties have very low proportions of nonwhites. Urban Places of 10,000 or More - ( Table 12 ) There are 29 cities w~th a populat~on ~n excess of 10,000 in Alabama. Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery are the largest, and they have the largest number of nonwhites. Cities with the greatest percentage of nonwhites are Bessemer, Fairfield, Selma, Prichard and Birmingham. All but eight of these 29 cities have more than 20% nonwhite population. TABLE 1: POPULATION OF ALABAMA BY COLOR, Year Total White Nonwhite %Nonwhite ,266,740 2,283, , ,061,743 2,079, , ,832,961 1,849, , ,646,248 1,700, , ,348,174 1,447, , ,138,093 1,228, , ,828,697 1,001, , Source: Bureau of the Census CHART 1: POPULATION in thousands r- --l 1, , ,849 ~ J r ~ 983 2,080 L- ~2,284 4 TABLE 2: BIRTH RATE BY COLOR; selected years, Live births per 1,000 of the population Year Nonwhite White Sources: Alabama Department of Health Vital Statistics of the U.S. CHART 2: BIRTH RATE; selected years Live birth rate per 1,000 of population in each racial p,roup :)'/.' 5 TABLE 3: DEATH RATE BY COLOR; selected years, Deaths per 1,000 of the population in each racial group Excludes stillbirths and deaths in the Armed Services Year Nonwhites Whites Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census Alabama Department of Health CHART 3: DEATH RATE; selected years Deaths per 1,000 of the population in each racial group 6 TABLE 4: INFANT MORTALITY BY COLOR; selected years, Deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live born in each racial group Year Nonwhite White Sources: U.S. Bureau of. the Census Vital Statistics of the U.S. CHART 4: INFANT MORTALITY, Number of deaths per 1,000 live births ' 7 TABLE 5: FETAL DEATH RATES; selected years, Deaths of fetuses 20 weeks old until birth per 1,000 live births in each racial group Year Nonwhite White Source: Vital Statist ics of the U.S. CHART 5: FETAL MORTALITY, Deaths per 1,000 births 8 TABLE 6: NEONATAL DEATH RATES ; selected years, Deaths of babies under 28 days of age per 1,000 live births in each racial group Year Nonwhite White Source: Vital Statistics of the U.S. CHART 6: NEONATAL MORTALITY, Deaths per 1,000 births 9 TABLE 7.: MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES BY COLOR; selected years Deaths of mothers per 1,000 live births in each racial group Year Nonwhite White Sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census Vital Statistics of the U.S. CHART 7: MATERNAL MORTALITY, Maternal mortality deaths per 1,000 live births 10-, 5- , t 10 TABLE 8: % CHANGE IN POPULATION, Decrease signified by a minus Negro White # % # % A~e GrouE Inc. or Dec. Inc. or Dec. Inc. or Dec. Inc. or Dec. Total all ages 1, , Under 10 years 23, , years 13, , years -43, , years -22, , years 18, , years 11, , Source: U S. Bureau of the Census CHART 8: %CHANGE IN THE POPULATION, % DI:CRI:flSI: -20% -1 0% o 10% I INCREASE 20% 30% Total all ages Under 10 yrs. of age yrs. of a~e yrs. of a~e yrs. of age of age -----'-'--'---''----, and older 11 TABLE 9 : POPULATION BY RACE AND URBAN OR RURAL RESIDENCE, Place of residence Nonwhite %Nonwhite Pop. White %White Pop. The State 983, ,283, Urban 558, ,237, Rural Nonfarm 300, , Rural Farm 124, , Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census TABLE 10: URBAN-RURAL MIGRATION OF THE NATIVE POPULATION BY RACE, Minus signifies a decrease Place of Residence Po r u1ation Population Net Migration and Race # % State 3,061,743 3,266', , White 2,079,591 2,283,609 20~, Nonwhite 982, , Urban: The State 1,340,937 1,791, , White 886,717 1,235, , Nonwhite 454, , , Rural: The State 1,720,806 1,475, , White 1,192,874 1,047, , Nonwhite 527, , , TABLE 11: POPULATION AND POPULATION CHANGES IN COUNTIES, County Total 1960 Population Nonwhite 1960 Population %Nonwhite 1960 % Net Chanpe s In Population Autauga + Ba1dwin - Barbour - libb _Blount _Bullock _Butler +Ca1houn Chambers Cherokee Chilton Choctaw 18,739 49,088 24,700 14,357 25,449 13,462 24,560 95,878 37,828 16,303 25,693 17,870 7,900 10,329 12,850 4, ,681 10,985 18,073 13,869 1,093 4,078 8, ' , / 12 TABLE 11 continued County Total 1960 Nonwhite 1960 %Nomlhite % Net Changes Population Population In Population Clarke 25,738 12, Clay 12,400 2, Cleburne 10, ' Coffee 30,583 6, Colbert 46,506 8, Conecuh 17,762 8, b Coosa 10,726 3, Covington 35,631 5, Crenshaw 14,909 4, Cullman 45, i -+ Dale 31,066 5, Dallas 56,667 32, De Kalb 41, Elmore , Escambia 33,511 11, Etowah 96,980 14, fayette 16,148 2, franklin 21,988 1, _Geneva 22,310 3, _Greene 13,600 11, Hale 19,537 13, Henry 15,286 6, '1 Houston 50,718 13, Jackson 36,681 2, Jefferson 634, , Lamar 14,271 2, Lauderdale 61,622 7,267, Lawrence 24,501 5, r Lee 49,754 18, Limestone 36,513 7, Lowndes 15,417 12, Macon 26,717 22, Madison 117,348 22, Marengo 27,098 16, Marion 21, Marshall 48,018 1, ~ Mobile 314, , Monroe 22,372 11, ,r Montgomery 169,210 64, TMorgan , Perry 17,358 11, Pickens 21,882 9, Pike 25,987 10, Randolph 19,477 4, \ 13 TABLE 11 continued County Total 1960 Nonwhite 1960 Population Populat ion %Uonwhite %!Jet Chan es In Population ~ussel l St. Clair Shelby - Sumter Talladega Tallapoosa ~ Tuscaloosa - Halker Washington ~ \o/ilcox - Winston 46,351 22, , 388 4, ,132 6, ,495 20, , , ,047 31,328 54, 211 5,627 15, 372 5, 30fi 18,739 14,598 14, ' S Source: U.S. Bureau of Census City and County ~ata Book-19G2 TABLE 12 URBAN PLACES OF 10,000 OR MORE POPULJ\TIOll, BY COLOR, AIlD % IIONWIlITI:, 1960 Total Population Nonwhite Population.%l~om,'hite Alexander City 13,140 3, Andalusia 10,263 2, Anniston 33,657 11, Auburn 16,261 3, _~essemer 33,054 18, Birmingham 340, , Chickasaw 10, CullMan 10, Decatur 29,217 4, Dothan 31,440 8, ;.I : I:nterprise 11,410 2, uf'.*fairfield 15,816 8, Florence 31,649 4,8Q Gadsden 58,088 12, Home~lOod 20,289 2, Huntsville 72,365 10, Jasper 10,799 1, '1obile 202,779 65, Montgomery 134,393 47, Mountain Brook 12, Opelika 15,678 5, Phenix City 27,630 10, Prichard 47,371 22, ,fSelma 28,385 13, Sheffield 13,491 2, 14 TABLE 12 continued Total Population Nonwhite Population %Nonwhite Sylacauga Talladega Troy Tuscaloosa 12,857 17,742 10,234 63,3 70 3,586 5,820 3,874 18, Source : U.S. Bureau of the Census PART 2, EMPLOYMENT Composition of the Labor Force - ( Table 13 and Chart 13) The proport~on of wh~tes ~s very similar to the proportion of nonwhites in the labor force. Hhen broken down by sex, however, differences emerge. There are, for example, a greater percentage of Negro women in the urban labor force, and the proportion of Negro males in the labor force is considerably less than for whites. Unemployment - ( Chart 14) Unemployment among ljegroes stands at over 40% higher than among whites. There has been more unfavorable increase in the rate of unemployment for liegroes than whites since Industr and Occu ational Distribution - Table 14 Indicates that almost tw~ce as many Negroes as w ~tes 2re employed in agriculture; while greater proportions of whites than Negroes are employed in manufacturing. Only in service industries does the proportion of Negroes employed outstrip the proportion of whites. Table 15 breaks this down by occupations. It is clear which end of the job spectrum is composed of Negroes -- the lowest. Pattern of Unemployment - Table 16 indicates the occupations of those persons unemployed. Among the unemployed nonwhites, 53% of the males and 80% of the females were among the unskilled. About 16% of the male nonwhite and 6% of the females are in the skilled category; and about 27% male and 9% females are in the semi-skilled class. t10st unemployment is among non-farm laboring and service groups. This gets as high as 47.5% for nonwhite males and 68.9% for nonwhite females. Thus, the cities of Alabama probably should be looked to for the greatest number of unemployed Negroes. 15 TABLE 13: % NONWHITES AND 'tihites IN THE LABOR FORCE, BY SEX, 1960 % Composition of the labor force for racial groups Employment Status and Sex Urban Male: Total 14 yrs. and over 100 In labor force 78.9 Not ~n labor force 21.1 In labor force employed 95.9 In labor force unemployed 4.1 Female: Total 14 yrs. and over 100 In labor force 35.0 Not in labor force 65.0 In labor force employed 95.6 In labor force unemployed 4.4 White Rural Rural Urban Nonfarm Farm Nonwhite Rural Rural Nonfarm Farm 16 CHART 13: %NEGRO AND WHITE POPULATION IN THE LABOR FORCE HALES FEMALES 71.' 7:2.1 7V Urban Rural Nonfarm Rural Farm Urban Rural Nonfarm Rural Farm CHART 14: %NEGRO AND WHITE WORKERS IN THE LABOR FORCE UNEMPLOYED 17 TABLr: 14: ItJDUSTRY GROUPIIIG OF L'lPLOyr:n PEP.SONS, (Percentage) Hhite Nonv]hi te State Urban Rural Rural State Urban Rural Rural Industry tlonfarm Farm NonFarm Farm /'.gricul ture Nanufacturing \'Iho lesale Trade t1ining o o 1 Transportation, Communications % 0ther public utilities Retail Trade A Service Industries E Ind ..lstry not LA reported Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 18 TABLE 15: % E'lPLOYED PERSONS IN RACIll.L AND SIXUAL GROUPS AND THEIR OCCUPATIOnS, 1960 Occuoation '1ale Hhi te ---riomlhi te Female White Nomlhite -Professional, technical 9.1, Farmers and farm managers ~lngr' s, bffj cials, proprietors Clerical and kindred Iorkers {;. 4 - Sales workers Craftsmen, foremen and 22.3 kindred workers 'nperatives and kindred 21.3 lorkers ---Private household workers Service workers, except 3. 5 private household wkrs. --- Farm laborers, except unpa~r 2.4 and foreman - Labore~s, except farm 1: 5.5 m~ne Occupations not reported o ? a? Source : U.S. Bureau of the Census 19 TABLE 16: MAJO~ GROUP OCCUPATIONS or THE ~XPE~IENC~D UNEMPLOYED, (Percentage) 1960 Occupation Group Male \-Ihi te -- NOnwhi te Female \.Ihi te Nor,whi te Professional, technical Farmers and farm nanagers l.s ~n8r 's, officials, proprietors 3.1 Clerical & kindred workers 4.3 Sales workers 3.9 Craftsmen, foreman & kindred 30.2 Horkers Operatives & kindred workers 29.2 Private household Horkers 0.2 Service workers, except 2.8 private household Farn laborer & foreman 3. 9 Laborers, except foreman 13.9 & Mine Occupation not reported O.S Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 20 PART 3, INCOME :ncome of Persons, ( Table 17 and Chart 15) Median ~ncome ~s a t~gure representing an average income; half the people in a group make more than this median income figure and half in the group make less. Thus, median income tells one about a large number of people who are even worse off than expressed in this average. The median income for nonwhite individuals is incredibly low, especially in the rural area where it is $669 per year. In all cases, rural, urban, or statewide, Negroes make at best 30% less than whites. Income for white persons increased 63% from ; for Negroes this was only a 41% increase. Income of Families, ( Table 18 ) A similar situation occurs for median income among families as among individual persons. In all areas of the state, white families earn from 40-44% more than Negro families. Thus, the usual solution that a family looks to for raising the t
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