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Doc NTSB AMM 8 06 J E E - ~oc ITSB ~MM ~ 6 . Report No. NTSB-AMM-S-6 I 2.Government Accession No. PBS2-3S Tite and Subtite Briefs of Accidents Invoving Acoho as a Cause/Factor, U.S. Genera Aviation,
Doc NTSB AMM 8 06 J E E - ~oc ITSB ~MM ~ 6 . Report No. NTSB-AMM-S-6 I 2.Government Accession No. PBS2-3S Tite and Subtite Briefs of Accidents Invoving Acoho as a Cause/Factor, U.S. Genera Aviation, Author(s} TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATIO~ PAGE 3.Recipient's Cataog No. 5.Report Date Octob~r Performing Organization Code 8.Performing Organization Report No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address Bureau of Technoogy Nationa Transportation Safety Board Washington, D.C Sponsoring Agency Name and Address NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Washington, D. C Work Unit No Contract or Grant No. 3.Type of Report and Period Covered Accident Reports in Brief 'Fonua t - U. S. Genera Aviation Invoving Acoho ::ic::- ~ f':zmc::t: o/'p;:;,- tnr- q7q 4.Sponsoring Agency Code 5.Suppementary Notes The subject report was distributed to NTSB maiing ists: 2A, SA and SB. 6.Abstract This pubication contains reports: on a U.S. genera aviation accidents, occurring in 979, invoving acoho impairment as a cause/factor. Incuded are 34 accident Briefs, 30 of which invove fata accidents. The brief fonnat presents the facts, conditions, circwnstances and probabe cause(s)/factor(s) for each accident. Additiona statistica infonnation is tabuated by type of accident, phase of operation, injury index, aircraft damage, piot certificate, injuries and causa factor (s}. This pubication wi be pubished annuay. 7 Key Words Aviation accidents, U.s. genera aviation, acoho as a cause/factor, type of accident, phase of operation, kind of fying, aircraft damage, injuries, piot data. 9.Security Cassification (of this report) UNCLASSIFIED NTSB For.rn (Rev. 9/74) 20.Security Cassification (of this page) UNCLASSIFIED 8.Distribution Statement This document is avaiabe to the pubic through the Nationa Technica Information Service Springfied, Virginia 226 (Aways refer to number /istedin item 2) 2.No. of Pages 22.Price 38 FOR..EWORD This report contains Briefs of U.S. Genera Aviation accidents invoving acoho impainnent as a cause/factor, arranged : s~ate and date?rder. In addition, this pubication incudes severa statstca tabes w~ch tabuate and summarize seected accident information, such as type 0 accident, phase of operation, injuries, cause/factors and piot certificates. In 979, U.S. Genera Aviation aircraft were invoved in 34 tota ~d 30 fata accidents where acoho impainnent -was a cause/factor. In comparison, the entire Genera Aviation feet incurred 4,023 tota and 678 fata accidents. The encosed computer briefs are the reports of the Nationa Transportation Safety Board and thereby subject to the imitations of 49 DSC 44(e) which states: No part of any report or reports of the Board, reating to any accident or the investigation thereof, sha be admitted as evidence or used in any su:it or action for damages growing out of any matter mentioned in such report or reports. In reading these reports, it shoud be borne in mind that they are produced directy from coded records on magnetic tape by eectronic data processing equipment. Aso, in reading the text, it JIIst oe borne in mind that computer anguage is utiized, thus requiring a num.oer of abbreviations due to spacing imitations. Caution shoud be exercised in reading the Briefs of Accidents, especiay those containing ah6reviations :i:n phrases and sentences. Coisions between aircraft are treated as one accident. A coded anaysis is done on each aircraft invoved in a. coision. This produces two aircra t accident records per accident. Consequenty,, when compiing infonnation on accidents invoving cois:ions between aircraft, the nmber of 'accident records wi exceed the m:nnber of accidents. The Briefs of Accidents contain the essentia infonnation which fufi most requirements of persons usi~g these reports. However, for those having a need for more detaied infonnation, the origina factua reports are on fie in the Washington Office of the Nationa Transportation Safety Board. Upon request, these reports wi be reproduced connnerciay for a fee to cover reproduction and postage. The cost wi be assessed per printed page and photograpncsj reproduced. Copies of materia ordered wi be maied from the Washington business f inn that hods the current contract for commercia reproduction of the Board's pubic fies. Biing is aso direct to you hy, the same company. Orders for this materia. wi aso invove a user service charge by the Board for specia services. This charge i.s in addition to the cost of COIIUUercia reproduction of materia and wi be incud.ed in the bi. from the conunercia reproduction f inn. Requests for reproduction shoud be!orwarded to the: NATIONAL TMNSPORTATION SA'FEY BOARD Puiic Inquiries Section (AD-46) Washington, D.C iii: - U.S. GENERAL AVIATION EXPLANATORY NOTES U.S. genera aviation refers to the operations of U.S. civi aircraft owned and operated by persons, businesses, corporations, etc., excuding the operations of U.S. air carriers. U.S. AIR CARRIER U.S. air carrier operations incude the foowing trree operationa categories: ) certificated route air carriers 2 suppementa air carriers and 3) connnercia operators of arge aircraft. DEFINITIONS The foowing definitions contained in CPI\ 49_, rart 830, paragraph appy when used in this pubication. Aircraft Accident An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes pace between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of fight unti such time as a such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury as a resut of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or in which the aircraft receives substantia damage. Fata Injury Any injury which resuts in death within 30 days of the accident. Serious Injuit Any injury wch requires. hospitaization for more than 48 hours, connnencing within 7 days fr.6m the date the injury Wcis received; 2 resuts in a fracture of any bone (except simpe fractures of fingers, toes, or nose; 3)_ invoves acerations which cause severe hemorrhages, nerve, :musce, or tendon damage; 4) invoves injury to any interna organ; or S invoves second- or third-degree burns, or.any burns affecting more than 5 percent of the body surface. Substantia Damage ). Except as provided in subparagraph_ c2 of this paragraph, substantia damage means damage or structura faiure' which adversey affects the structura strength, performance, or fight characteristics of the aircraft, and which woud nonnay require major repair or repacement of the affected component. 2) Engine faiure, damage imited to an engine, bent fairings or cowing, dented skin, sma punctured hoes in the skin or fabric, ground damage to rotor or propeer bades, damage to anding gear, whees, ~ires, fa~s, en~ine accessories, brakes, or wingtips are not considered substantia damage for the purpose of this part. - y - INJURY INDEX EXPIANATORY.NOTFS Injury index refers to the highest degree of persona injury sustained as a resut of the accident. YPE OF ACCIDENT Type of accident reates to the :immediate circiistances of the occurrence. Many accidents invove a series- of cira.nnstances and therefore require a second type to more fuy describe the sequence of events. Some exampes of types of accidents are as foows: Gear Coapsed Coapse of the anding gear due to mechanica faiure other than mafunction of the retracting mechanism. Gear Retracted Retraction of the anding gear due to mafunction or faiure of the retracting mechanism or to inadvertent retraction by the crew. Excudes intentiona gear retraction and whees-up anding. Airframe Faiure Occurrences resuting from at.ure of. any part of the airframe whie in fight or in motion on the ground. Excudes faiure resuting from contact with another airpane or object, or impact with the ground, or damage from anding gear co.apse or retraction. Engine Faiure,/vafunction Occurrences of engine faiure or mafunction for any reason. Incudes engine stoppage, power interruption, or power oss, actua or simuated. The phase of operation reates to the particuar segment of the fight or operation during which.the circwnstances of the accident occur. KIND OF FLYING Refers to the purpose for which.the.air.craft is being operated at the time of the accident. T.nere are four Broad categories of kind of fying.. Instructiona Fying Refers to fying accompished in supervised training under the direction of an accredited instructor. - Y - EXPLANATORY NOTES KIND OF FLYINf; 2. Noncommerica Fyin~ Refers to the use o an aircraft for purposes of peasure, persona transportation or in connection with a private business, in corporate/executiye operations, and in other operations, wherein there is no dir.ect monetary fee charged. It incudes. the foowing categories. Peasure Fying by individuas in their own or rented aircraft for peasure, or persona transportation not in furtherance of their occupation or company business. Business The use of aircraft by piots (p.ot receiving direct saary or compensation for pioting} in connection with their occupation or in the furtherance of a private business. Corporate/Executive Operations The use of aircraft owned or eased, and operated by a corporation or business firm for the transportation of personne or cargo in furtherance of the corporation's or inn's business, and which are fown by professiona 2iots receiving a direct saary or compensation or pioting. 3. Commerc~a '.FYj-ng. Connnercia fyng incudes. a genera aviation fying normay conducted for direct inancia return, except instructiona fying. It incudes: air taxi operations, aeria appication, fire contro, aeria mapping or photography, aeria advertising, power/pipeine patro and fish spotting. 4. Misceaneous Fying Incudes other kinds 0 fying not covered under the other three broad categories. In some instances the criterion of direct financia return may or may not be present. COLLISION BETWEEN AIRCRAFT Coisions between aircraft are s.o cassifi'e.d ony when both aircraft are occupied. This incudes coisions- wherein bo.th aircraft are airborne (midair); one is airborne, the other on the ground; and both are on the ground. A coision with a parked, unoccupied aircraft is cassif i:ed under the broad category of coision with objects (parked, unoccupied aircraft). - vii - EXPLANATORY NOTES CAUSES AND RELATED FACTORS In determining probabe cause(s-) 0 an accident, a facts, conditions, and circumstances are considered. The object is to ascertain those cause-effect reationships in the accident sequence aoout which something can be done to prevent recurrence of the type of accident under consideration. Accordingy, for statistica purposes where two OJ? more causes exist in an accident, each is recorded and no attempt is- made to estabish a primary cause. Therefore, i.n the Cause and Reated Factor Tabe, the figures shown in the comnns deaing with Cause wi exceed the tota mnnber of accidents. The tenn Factor is used, in genera, to denote those eements of an accident which further expain or suppement the probabe causec:s. This provision was incorporated in the coding system to increase its fexibiity and to provide a means for coecting essentia items of in onnation which coud not be categorized esewhere in the system. AIRCRAFT WEIGfIT CATEGORIES The Internationa Civi Aviation Organization's categories of aircraft weight are utiized to cassify accident data as foows: 0-2,25-5,70-27,00-272,00 - SMAIL FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT 2,250 kiograms 5,700 kiograms 27,000 kiograms 272,000 kiograms kiograms and greater (0-4, 960 pounds (4, 96-2, 565 pounds) (2, , 525 pounds} (59, :, 65Q pounds}_ (:; 9-g,65 pounds and greater) Fixed-wing aircraft which have a maximum gross takeoff weight of 5700 kiograms (2,565 pounds}, or ess. LARGE FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT Fixed-Wing aircraft which have a max:furum takeoff weight greater than 5,700 kiograms (2,565 pounds}. ROTOR CRAFT Air~raft which in a usua fight attitudes are supported in the air whoy or n part by a rotor or rotors; i.e., by airfois rotating or revoving about an axis. TIPES OF WEATHER CONDITIONS The types of weather conditions CYFR/I:FR) are detennined in accordance with the prescribed minima in Part 9 of the Federa Aviation Reguations. ~hese min~a ~ertain to the ceiing and visibiity, in conjut~ction with the type of airspace, at the accident site. Type of weather conditions are based on surface weather as detennined from officiay recognized sources. W~ather conditions encountered in fight are not necessariy representatr~e. of the cassifications V,FR/I'FR as carried under Type 0 Weather Conditions. - yi'fi - LIST Of ABBREVIATIONS USED IN BRIEFS ABBREV IA TI ON AERIAL AD VER T SE ATR,FLIGHT INSTR. A IR SHOW/RAC I NG AIR TAXI-CARGO AIR TAXI-PASSG APPROACH CTL-DEPARTURE APR CTL-TOW ENRT CTL SRV ASSOC CROP CTL ACTIVITIES ASSOC FIRE C TL AC TI VI TIES COHMERCIAL,FLIGHT.INSTR. CORP/EXEC CR- CTR CARGO-D CTR CARGO-I CTR PA SSG-D.CTR PA SSG- I LAST ENROUTE STOP MA PP I NG /PHO TO MIL CONTRACT CARGO INTL MIL CONTRACT PASS6 INTL MILITARY CTR CARGO DOM MILITARY CTR PA SSG DOM MIL/CTR CARGO MIL/CTR PASSG CARGO PASSG REVENUE REVENUE REVENUE RE VENUE PARAJUMP PRIVATE,FL.INST R. NR. NS CTR NS CTR NS/CTR NS/CTR NS/CTR NS/CTR OT PX- RADAR SCHED SCHED SCHED SCHED SCHED SCHED S-D S- I UNK/NR CARGO DOM CARGO INTL PASSG DOM PASSG INTL C T/SURVEILLANCE CARGO SR V DOM CARGO SRV DOM PA SSG SRV INTERNATL CARGO SRV I NTERNATL PASSG SRV PA SSG SR V MEANING AERIAL ADVERTISING AIRLINE TRANS PORT INSTRUCTOR AIR SHOW/AIR RACING AIR TAXI-CARGO OPERATIONS AIR TAXI-PASSENGER OPERATIONS APPROACH CONTROL-DEPARTURE APPROACH CONTROL-TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL SERVICE ASSOCIATED CROP CONTROL ACTIVITIES ASSOCIATED FIRE CONTROL ACTIVITIES COMMERCIAL FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR CORPORATION/EXECUTIVE CREW CONTRACT/CHARTER-CARGO-DOMESTIC CONTRACT/CHARTER-CARGO-INTERNATIONAL CONTRACT/CHARTER-PASSENGER-DOMESTIC CONTRACT/CHARTER-PASSENGER-INTERNATIONAL LAST PLANNED EN ROUTE LANDING POINT AERIAL MAPPING/PHOTOGRAPHY MI LIT ARY CONTRACT-CARGO- I NT ERNAT IONAL M LIT ARY CONTRACT-PASS ENGER- INTERNATIONAL M LIT ARY CONTRACT-CARGO-DOMES TIC MI LIT ARY CONTRACT-PASS ENGER-DOMESTIC MILITARY CONTRACT-CARGO MILITARY CQNT RACT-PASS ENGER NEAR NONSCHEDULED/CHARTER REVENUE CARGO-INTRA-STATE NONSCHEDULED/CHARTER REVENUE PASSENGER-INTRA-STATE NONSCHEDULED/ CHART ER REVENUE CARGO-DOMESTIC NONSCHEDULED/CHARTER REVENUE CARGO-INTERNATIONAL NONSCHEOUL ED/ CHART ER REVENUE PASSENGER-DOMESTIC NONSCHEDULED/ CHART ER REVENUE PASSENGER- IN TERNA TL OTHER AIRCRAFT AND GROUND PARACHUTE JUMP PRIVATE FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR PASSENGERS RADAR CONTROL/SURVEILLANCE SCHEDULED CARGO SERVICE SCHEDULED DOMESTIC CARGO SERVICE SCHEDULED DOMESTIC PASSENGER SERVICE SCHEDULED I NT ERN AT ION A CAR GO SERVICE SCHEDULED INTERNATIONAL PASSENGER SERVICE SCHEDULED PASSENGER SERVICE SCHEDULED-DOMESTIC SCHEDULED-I NT ERNAT IONAL UNKNOWN/NOT REPORT ED - ix - 7 NJURIES~ACCIOENTS U.S. GJ::NERAL AVIATION INVOLVI\G _ ALCOHOL AS A CAUSE/FACTOR Q7Q If\JJUR IE S FATAL SERIOUS MINOR NONE UNKNOWN TOTAL PILOT COPILOT.DUAL STUDENT CHECK PILOT F LI G HT E \ GI NE ER NAVIGATOR CABIN ATTENDA\IT EXTRA CREW PASSENGERS ~ TOTAL ABOARD OTHER AIRCRAFT OTHER GROUND GRAND TOTAL INVOLVES INVOLVES 34 TOTAL ACCIDENTS 30 FATAL ACCIDENTS ANALYTIC TABLE KIND OF FLYING BY PILOT CERTIFICATE PILOT CERTIFICATE KIND OF FLYING RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENT INSTRUCTIONAL DUAi_ 2.94 SOLO CHECK TRATNING NONCOMMERCIAL PLEASURE PRACTICE BUST NESS CORP OR A TE IE X ECIJTI VE AERIAL SURVEY COMPANY FLIGHT OTHER COMMER CI AL AERIAL APPLICATION CROP CONTROL RELATED FLIGHT FIRE CONTROL FIRE CONTROL RELATEO FLIGHT. AERIAL MAPPING/PHOTOGRAPHY AERIAL ADVERTISING POWER AND PIPELINE PATROL FISH SPOTTING AIR TAXI-PASSENGER OPFRATIONS AIR TAXI-CARGO OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION WORK SCHEDULED PASSENGER'SERVICE SCHEDULED CARGO SERVICE INTRA-STATE CHARTER PASSG. INTRA-STATE CHARTER CARGO. MILITARY CONTRACT-PASSENGER MILITARY CONTRACT-CARGO CHARTER CARGO-DOMESTIC I CH~RTER PASSG-DOMESTIC CiARTER-CARGO-INTERNATIONAL ;iharter-passg-international /OTHER UNKNOWN/NOT REPORTED PAGE ANALYTIC TABLE KIND OF FLYING BY PILOT CERTIFICATE PILOT CERTIFICATE KIND OF FLYING RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENT MISCELLANEOUS EXPERIMENTATION TEST DEMONSTRATION FERRY SEARCH AND RESCUE AIR SHOW/AIR RACING PARACHUTE JUMP PARACHUTE JU~P-AIR SHOW TOWING GLIDERS SEEDING CLOUDS HUN TI NG POLICE PATROL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC ADVISORY ALL OTHER PUBLIC FLYING OTHER UNKNOWN/NOT REPORTED 2.94 RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENTS o Q.o 2.Q PAGE 3 ANALYTIC TABLE FIRST BY AIRCRAFT DAMAGE AIRCRAFT DAMAGE F RST GROUND-WATER LOOP-SWERVE DRAGGED WINGTIP POD OR WHEELS-UP LANDING FLOAT WHEELS-DOWN LANDING IN WATER GEAR COLLAPSED GEAR RETRACTED HARD LANDING NOSE OVER/DOWN ROLL OVER OVERSHOOT UNDERSHOOT COLLISION BETWEEN AIRCRAFT BOTH IN FLIGHT ONE AIRBORNE BOTH ON GROUND COLLISION WITH GROIJND/WATER CONTROLLED UNCONTROLLED COLLIDED WITH WIRES/POLES TREES RES IDENCE/S BUILDING/S FENCE. FENCEPOSTS ELECTRONIC TOWERS RUNWAY OR AIRPORT HAZARD ANIMALS CROP FLAGMAN LOADER DI TC HES SNOWBANK APPROACH ~IGHTS PARKED AIRCRAFT (UNATTENDED) AUTOMOBILE DIRT BANK OTHER BI RD STRIKE RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENT PAGE 4 ANALYTIC TABLE FIRST BY AIRCRAFT DAMAGE AIRCRAFT DAMAGE FIRST STALL RECORDS ACCIDENTS ~ SPIN SPIRAL MUSH FIRE OR EXPLOSION IN FLIGHT ON GROUND AI.RFRAME FAILURE IN FLIGHT ON GROUND ENGINE TEARAWAY ENGINE FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION PROPELLER/ROTOR FAILURE PROPELLER TAIL ROTOR MAIN ROTOR PROP ROTOR ACDNT TO PERSON. JET INTAKE/EXH ACDNT TO PF.RS AR PROPELLER/JET/ROTOR ALAST TURBULENCE HAIL DAMAGE TO AIRCRAFT LIGHTNING STRIKE EVASIVE MANEUVER UNCONTROLLED ALT DEVIATION DITCHING MISSING ACFT NOT RECOVERED MISCELLANEOUS/OTHER UNDETERMINED RECORDS 4 34 ACCIDENTS PERCENTS o PAGE ANALYTIC TABLE FIRST BY INJURY INDEX INJURY INDEX FIRST OPERATIONAL PHASE ~ STARTING ENGINE/S IDLING ENGINE/S ENGINE RUNUP RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENT 5.88 IDLING ROTORS PARKED-ENGINES NOT OPERATING OTHER TAXI TO TAKEOFF FROM LANDING OTHER GROUND TAXI TO TAKEOFF GROUND TAXI FROM LA~DING GROUND TAXI, OTHER AERIAL TAXI TO TAKEOFF AERIAL TAXI TO/FROM LANDING AERIAL TAXI, OTHER ~ RUN INITIAL CLIMB VERTICAL RUNNING (ROTORCRAFT/VTOL-STOL) AAORTED (FIXED-WING) ABORTED (ROTORCRAFT/VTOL) ABORTED (ROTORCRAFT/STOL) OTHER INFLIGHT CLIMB TO CRUISE NORMAL CRUISE DESCENDING HOLDHIG (!FR) HOVERING POWER-ON DESCENT (ROTORCRAFT) AUTOROTATIVE DESCENT ACROBATICS BUZZING UNCONTROLLED DESCENT PAGE 6 ANALYTIC TABLE. FIRST BY INJURY INDEX INJURY INDEX FIRST OPERATIONAL PHASE RECORDS ACCIDENTS PERCENT EMERGENCY DESCENT LOW OTHER PASS A.AZ 5.A8 EN ROUTE TO TREAT CROP EN ROUTE TO RELOADING AREA SURVEY FIELD/AREA STARTING SWATH RIJN SWATH RUN FLAREOUT FOR SWATH RM PULLUP FROM SWATH RUN PROCEDURE TURNAROUMD CLEANUP SWATH MANEUVER TO AVOID oestruction RETURN TO STRIP LANDI NG TRAFFIC PATTERN-CIRCLING FINAL APPROACH (VFR AA 8.A2 IN IT I AL APPROACH 2.94 FINAL APPROACH (JFR LEVEL OFF/TOUCHDOWN ROLL (FIXED WING) ROLL-ON/RUN-ON (ROTORCRAFT POWER-ON LANDING (ROTORCRAFT POWER-OFF AUTDRDTATIVE LOG GO-AROUND (VFR MISSED APPROACH (IFR OTHER UNKNOWN/NOT REPORTED 2.94 RECORDS ACC IOENTS PERCENTS 30 4 'AA.2.A.o o 34 PAGE 7 CAUSE/FACTOR TABLE U.S. GENERAL AVIATION ACCIDENTS I~VOLVING ALCOHOL AS A CAUSE/FACTOR q79 (EXCLUDES ACCIDENTS WITHOUT CAUSAL ASSIGNMENT INVOLVES INVOLVES 34 TOTAL ACCIDENTS 30 FATAL ACCIDENTS FATAL ACCIDENTS NONFATAL ACCIDENTS BROAD CAUSE/FACTOR CAUSE FACTOR TOTAL* CAUSE FACTOR TOTAL* ALL ACCIDENTS CAUSE FACTOR TOTAL* :& ~ 00 PILOT q oo PERSONNEL 3.33.oo oo AIRFRAME.oo oo.oo.oo LANDING GEAR POWERPLANT SYSTEMS INSTRUMENTS/EQUIPMENT & ACCESSORIES ROTORCRAFT AIRPORT/AIRWAYS/FACILITIES.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo.oo oo.oo WEATHER.oo oo.oo.oo TERRAIN 4 4.oo oo MISCELLANEOUS 00.oo.oo.oo UNDETERMINED THE FIGURES OPPOSITE EACH CAUSAL CATEGORY REPRESENT THE NUMBER AND PERCENT OF ACCIDENTS IN WHICH THAT PARTICULAR CAUSAL CATEGORY WAS ASSIGNED * IF AN,~cc ID ENT INCLUDES BOTH A CAUSE AND RELATED FACTOR IN THE SAME CAUSAL CATEGORY, THE ACCIDENT
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