Absence of cyclin D2 expression is associated with promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer

Expression of cyclin D2 is absent in 30-70% of gastric cancers. We investigated the role of promoter hypermethylation in the transcriptional silencing of cyclin D2 in five gastric cell lines and 47 primary gastric carcinomas. CpG island methylation
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  Absence of cyclin D2 expression is associated with promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer   J Yu 1 , WK Leung* ,1 , MPA Ebert 2 , RWL Leong 1 , PCH Tse 1 , MWY Chan 1 , AHC Bai 1 , KF To 3 , P Malfertheiner  2 and JJY Sung 1 1 Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China;  2 Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany;  3 Department of Anatomical & Cellular Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China Expression of cyclin D2 is absent in 30–70% of gastric cancers. We investigated the role of promoter hypermethylation in the transcriptional silencing of   cyclin D2  in five gastric cell lines and 47 primary gastric carcinomas. CpG island methylation status of the cyclin D2  gene was studied by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulphite sequencing. RNA and protein expressionwas analysed by reverse transcription–PCR and Western blot, respectively. Dense methylation of   cyclin D2  was detected in three celllines (KATOIII, AGS and NCI-N87), which also lacked cyclin D2 mRNA and protein expression. Bisulphite DNA sequencing revealed that loss of cyclin D2 expression was closely associated with the density of methylation in the promoter region. Treatment with DNAmethyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2 0 -deoxycytidine, restored the cyclin D2 expression level in methylated gastric cells. Among the 47primary gastric cancers,  cyclin D2  hypermethylation was detected in 23 (48.9%) cases. None of the 23 normal gastric biopsies fromnoncancer patients showed hypermethylation. Hypermethylation was associated with loss of mRNA ( P o 0.001) and protein( P ¼ 0.006) expressions. Our study showed that  cyclin D2  hypermethylation is associated with loss of cyclin D2 expression in a subsetof gastric cancers, which may suggest an alternative gastric carcinogenesis pathway in the absence of cyclin D2 expression. British Journal of Cancer   (2003)  88,  1560–1565. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600940 & 2003 Cancer Research UK  Keywords:  cyclin D2; gastric carcinoma; hypermethylation; demethylation  Cyclin D2 is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle at the pointof transition from G1 to DNA synthesis. In addition to its role incell cycle regulation, cyclin D2 is also implicated in cellulardifferentiation and malignant transformation (Evron  et al  , 2001).Overexpression of cyclin D2 has been reported in gastric cancerand is shown to correlate with disease progression and poorprognosis (Takano  et al  , 1999; Yu  et al  , 2001). On the other hand,cyclin D2 expression is not universal in gastric cancer. We andothers have demonstrated that cyclin D2 mRNA and/or protein areabsent in 30–70% of gastric cancers (Yasogawa  et al  , 1998; Takano et al  , 1999, 2000). These results indicate that a subset of gastriccancers arise from cyclin D2 independent pathway.Recently, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest thatpromoter hypermethylation is a major mechanism for thesilencing of tumour-suppressor genes (Jones and Laird, 1999;Baylin and Herman, 2000). Cytosine methylation of CpG islandslocated within the promoter region is generally associated withdelayed replication, condensed chromatin and inhibition of transcription initiation (Baylin  et al  , 1998; Delgado  et al  , 1998;Jones and Laird, 1999). Studies including ours indicated thataberrant hypermethylation of 5 0 CpG islands is one of the crucialmechanisms in the transcriptional silencing of multiple tumour-related genes in gastric cancer (Lee  et al  , 1997; Iida  et al  , 2000;Kang  et al  , 2000; Shin  et al  , 2000; Song  et al  , 2000; Leung  et al  ,2001). Recent studies suggested that cyclin D2 expression isinhibited by the aberrant methylation of the promoter region of the  cyclin D2  gene in breast cancers as well as in Epstein–Barrvirus-positive Burkitt’s lymphoma (Sinclair  et al  , 1995; Evron  et al  ,2001; Lehmann  et al  , 2002). However, there is no availableinformation on the methylation status of the  cyclin D2  gene ingastric cancer. The aim of the current study was to examine themethylation status of the CpG sites in the  cyclin D2  promoterregion of gastric cancer by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) andbisulphite DNA sequencing. We also correlated the expression of cyclin D2 with  cyclin D2  promoter hypermethylation in gastriccancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cancer cell lines and tissues The human gastric cancer cell lines KATO III, MKN45, MKN28,AGS and NCI-N87 (N87) were obtained from Riken Cell Bank(Tsukuba, Japan) or American Type Culture Collection (ATCC;Rockville, MD, USA). All cell lines, except AGS, were maintained inRPMI medium (Gibco BRL, Rockville, MD, USA) with 10% foetalbovine serum (Gibco BRL). AGS cell line was kept in F-12Kmedium (ATCC) with 10% foetal bovine serum. Received 29 October 2002; revised 29 January 2003; accepted 10February 2003*Correspondence: Dr WK Leung, Division of Gastroenterology andHepatology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of WalesHospital, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, China; E-mail:  British Journal of Cancer (2003) 88,  1560–1565 &  2003 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved 0007– 0920/03  $ 25.00 M ol    e c ul    ar  an d  C el   l    ul    ar P  a t  h  ol    o  g  y  Gastric cancers were obtained from 47 gastrectomy patients atthe time of surgery. There were 30 males and 17 females with amean age of 64.8 years (range 36–83). In addition, normalendoscopic gastric biopsies from 23 noncancer subjects (mean age53.3 years, range 35–77 years) were used as control. The sampleswere immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at  80 1 C. The remaining tissue specimens were fixed in 10%formalin and embedded in paraffin for routine histologicalexamination and immunohistochemical analysis. All patients gaveinformed consent for obtaining the study specimens, and the study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the localhospitals. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction(RT–PCR) Gastric tissue specimens were homogenised with an ultrasoundhomogeniser. Total RNA was extracted by using RNA Tri Reagents(CINNA/MRC, Cincinnati, OH, USA) according to the manufac-turer’s protocol. Total RNA (1 m g) was reverse transcribed intocDNA by using dNTP (1m M ), 5   reverse transcription buffer(500m M  Tris-HCl pH 8.3, 250m M  KCl, 50m M  MgCl 2  and 50m M DTT), 16U RNasin and 2.5U of AMV reverse transcriptase (GibcoBRL). For PCR, the primer sequences were as follows:  cyclin D2 (Evron  et al  , 2001), (sense) 5 0 -CATGGAGCTGCTGTGCCACG-3 0 and (antisense) 5 0 -CCGACCTACCTCCAGCATCC-3 0 ; and  b -actin ,(forward) 5 0 -TGACGGGGTCACCCACACTGTGCCCATCTA-3 0 , (re-verse) 5 0 -CTAGAAGCATTTGCGGTGGACGATGGAGGG-3 0 . Thereaction was performed at 95 1 C for 1.5min, and was followed by 35 cycles of denaturating at 95 1 C for 24s, annealing at 58 1 C for 48sand extension at 72 1 C for 1min. The PCR products were separatedon 1.5% agarose gel and saved as digital images (Uvigrab; UVItec,Cambridge, UK) (Figure 1A). Western blot analysis Proteins were extracted from cell pellets using Trizol Reagents(Gibco BRL). Protein concentrations were measured by themethod of Bradford (Bio-Rad, Hercules, USA). In all, 20 m g of protein was loaded per lane, separated by 10% SDS–polyacryla-mide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, and trans-ferred onto equilibrated polyvinylidene difluoride membrane(Amersham Biosciences Com., UK) by electroblotting. Membraneswere blocked by 5% nonfat dry milk and then incubated withanticyclin D2 antibody (dilution 1:1000; sc-181-G, goat polyclonalantibodies; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) for2.5h at room temperature. After secondary antibody incubation,cyclin D2 was detected by the enhanced chemiluminescencedetection system (Amersham Biosciences Com.) (Figure 1C). Immunohistochemistry  Expression of cyclin D2 protein was examined by avidin–biotincomplex (ABC) immunoperoxidase method as described pre-viously (Yu  et al  , 2001). Sections of 5 m m were cut from theparaffin-embedded blocks, placed on charged glass slides,deparaffinised, rehydrated, rinsed with distilled water and washedwith Tris-buffered saline (TBS). The slides were then treated with3% hydrogen peroxide to block endogenous peroxidase activity.After blocking with 5% normal serum for 20min, polyclonalantibody against cyclin D2 (sc181, Santa Cruz, CA, USA) wasapplied and incubated at 4 1 C overnight. After rinsing, thebiotinylated secondary antibody and ABComplex/HRP (Dako A/S,Denmark) were applied. Peroxidase activity was visualised by thediaminobenzidine chromogen with 0.05% hydrogen peroxide. Thesections were then counterstained with haematoxylin, dehydrated,cleared and mounted. Since this antibody may have minimalcrossreaction with cyclin D1, parallel paraffin-embedded sectionswere used in staining for cyclin D1 immunoreactivity (Dako A/S).In most cancer cases with cyclin D2 immunoreactivity, cyclin D1was not detected, which suggested that the staining obtained wasbecause of cyclin D2 expression in these tumours. Bisulphite modification Genomic DNA from cell lines or frozen gastric tissues wasextracted by using the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit(Roche, Germany). Genomic DNA of 1 m g was treated with sodiumbisulphite using the CpGenome DNA Modification Kit (Intergen,Purchase, NY, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.After bisulphite treatment, cytosine residues are deaminated andchanged into uracil residues, but methylated cytosine remainsunmodified. Differentiation between methylated and unmethylatedsequences can then be made by amplification using specificprimers that target either the uracil or the cytosine nucleotide. Methylation-specific PCR PCR amplification was performed on the bisulphite-modified DNAsamples using primer sets targeting the CpG-rich region in the cyclin D2  promoter. The methylated and unmethylated primersequences were based on the report by Evron and the regions of primers were numbered from the transcriptional start site (Evron et al  , 2001): unmethylated reaction, 5 0 -GTTATGTTATGTTTGTTG-TATG-3 0 (sense,   1372 to   1350) and 5 0 -TAAAATCCACCAACA-CAATCA-3 0 (antisense,   1150 to   1170), 223-bp product;and methylated reaction, 5 0 -TACGTGTTAGGGTCGATCG-3 0 (sense,   1183 to   1165) and 5 0 -CGAAATATCTACGCTAAACG-3 0 T2T4T30T39T35 ( − )    K   A   T   O   I   I   I   A   G   S   N   8   7   M   K   N   4   5   M   K   N   2   8   M  a  r   k  e  r T2T4T30T39T35 ( − )    K   A   T   O   I   I   I   A   G   S   N   8   7   M   K   N   4   5   M   K   N   2   8   M  a  r   k  e  r T2 T4 T30 T39 T35    K   A   T   O   I   I   I   A   G   S   N   8   7   M   K   N   4   5   M   K   N   2   8  -actin  -actinCyclin D2Cyclin D2UM ABC Figure 1  ( A ) Expression of cyclin D2 mRNA in a panel of five gastriccancer cell lines (KATO III, AGS, N87, MKN45 and MKN28) and five gastriccancer tissues (T2, T4, T30, T39 and T45) by RT–PCR. A blank control(H 2 O) was included in each PCR experiment (  ). mRNA for   b -actin wasused as control for the integrity of RNA samples. A 100-bp marker was runin parallel on an agarose gel. ( B ) Methylation-specific PCR was performedafter bisulphite modification of DNA. U indicates unmethylated cyclin D2PCR products. M indicates methylated cyclin D2 PCR products. Threerepresentative samples of methylation-positive (T4, T30 and T35) and twomethylation-negative (T2 and T39) tumours are shown. DNA template-negative control (H 2 O) was also included (  ). ( C ) Representativeexamples of Western blot analysis of cyclin D2 expression. Lysates(20 m g of protein) from gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumourswere immunoblotted with a cyclin D2 antibody. Cyclin D2 methylation in gastric cancer   J Yu  et al 1561 British Journal of Cancer (2003)  88 (10), 1560–1565 &  2003 Cancer Research UK       M   o     l   e   c   u     l   a   r   a   n     d     C   e     l     l   u     l   a   r     P   a    t     h   o     l   o   g   y  (antisense,   908 to   927), 276-bp product. Hot start PCR wasconducted in a 25 m l reaction solution containing 1   PCR buffer,0.25m M  each of the deoxynucleoside triphosphates, 1m M  of eachprimer and 1U of   Taq  polymerase (AmpliTaq Gold; PE AppliedBiosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The temperature profile for theamplification was as follows: 12min at 95 1 C, 35 cycles of denaturing at 95 1 C for 30s, 45s annealing at 52 1 C, 60s extensionat 72 1 C, and a final extension step of 5min at 72 1 C. PCR productswere analysed in 2% agarose gels and stained with ethidiumbromide (Figure 1B).  In vitro  methylated control (positive control;Intergen) and DNA template-negative control (H 2 O) were includedin each PCR. All reactions were repeated twice to ensureconsistency of results. Bisulphite DNA sequencing For bisulphite DNA sequencing analysis, PCR primers weredesigned to amplify a CpG-rich region spanning from   1220 to  883 from the transcriptional start site, which contains 27 CpGsites. Primer sequences were: 5 0 -TTTGTAAAGATAGTTTTGATT-TAAGG-3 0 (  1220 to   1195 forward) and 5 0 -CCCCTACATCTAC-TAACAAAC-3 0 (  883 to   903, reverse). The PCR product wascloned into the pCR4-TOPO s vector using the TOPO TACloning s Kit (Gibco/Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA). Multiple clones(minimum of five) from each PCR product were sequenced usingthe ABI Prism Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (PEBiosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) and the ABI Prism 310 DNASequencer (PE Biosystems). Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2 0 -deoxycytidine (5-azaDC) Cells were seeded at a density of 1  10 6 cells 60mm  1 dish. After24h, cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10 m M  5-azaDC (Sigma ChemicalCo., USA). The same concentration of DMSO was used as a controlfor nonspecific solvent effect on cells. Total cellular RNA andprotein were isolated 3 and 5 days after addition of 5-azaDC asdescribed above. Statistical analysis The difference between the methylated and the unmethylatedgroups was evaluated by   w 2 test or Fisher’s exact test. Atwo-sided  P  -value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Methylation of   cyclin D2  is associated with transcriptionalsilencing in gastric cancer cell lines By using RT–PCR and Western blotting, cyclin D2 mRNA andprotein expression was found only in MKN28 but not in KATOIII,AGS and N87 cell lines (Figure 1A, C). Notably, MKN45 hadreduced level of cyclin D2 mRNA expression but there was noprotein expression detected. A screen for  cyclin D2  promotermethylation was performed by MSP. Hypermethylation at theCpG-rich region with no mRNA expression was detected in allthree cell lines (KATOIII, AGS, N87) as well as in MKN45(Figure 1B), but was not detected in MKN28 with strong mRNAand protein expression.Next, we treated cyclin D2 methylated cell lines (KATOIII, AGS,N87) with the methylation inhibitor 5-azaDC (Jones, 1985).Expression of cyclin D2 was restored in all three methylated celllines after 3 days treatment with 5-AzaDC (Figure 2). The ability of 5-azaDC to enhance expression of cyclin D2 was more markedwhen cells were treated for 5 days. Hypermethylation leads to  cyclin D2  silencing inprimary gastric tumours Among the 47 primary gastric cancers, 23 (48.9%). had  cyclin D2 methylation detected by MSP (Figure 1B). The presence of bothmethylated and unmethylated bands in tumour samples reflectsheterogeneity of the tumour or may represent the inclusion of normal tissues or infiltrating lymphocytes in tissue homogenates.Of the 23 methylation-positive cases, 15 (65.2%) had complete lossof cyclin D2 mRNA expression. In contrast, only three of 24(12.5%) methylation-negative cases had lost cyclin D2 mRNAexpression. There was a strong association between the lack of cyclin D2 mRNA expression and promoter hypermethylation(Table 1;  P  o 0.001). To further demonstrate that promotermethylation of   cyclin D2  is a tumour-specific phenomenon, DNAfrom 23 histologically normal gastric mucosa were tested. None of these normal samples had methylation detected by MSP (data notshown).Western blot was performed in 28 randomly selected cases of gastric cancer. In total, 10 (66.7%) of the 15 cases with promoterhypermethylation in  cyclin D2  did not express the correspondingprotein. On the other hand, only two of the 13 unmethylatedtumours did not express cyclin D2 protein ( P  ¼ 0.006; Table 2). Inkeeping with the findings by Western blot, cyclin D2 immunor-eactivity was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of gastriccancers without methylation (Figure 3A). In methylated tumours(Figure 3B) and in normal gastric tissues (Figure 3C), there was nocyclin D2 immunoreactivity detected. 0 1 5 10 0 1 5 10 0 1 5 100 1 5 10 0 1 5 10 0 1 5 10Marker0 1 5 10 0 1 5 10 0 1 5 10 MarkerKATOIII AGS N87KATOIII AGS N87( − )5-azaDC (  M )  -actin  -actinCyclin D2Cyclin D25-azaDC (  M )3 day5 dayNeg10.     C  y  c   l   i  n   D   2   /           -  a  c   t   i  n   D  e  n  s   i   t  o  m  e   t  r  y  u  n   i   t  e  s 3 day5 day5-azaDC concentration (  M ) Figure 2  Inhibition of methylation restored cyclin D2 expression incyclin D2-negative cell lines (KATO III, AGS and N87). Cell lines were treated with 0, 1, 5 or 10 m M  of 5-azaDC for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Thelower figures show the levels of the cyclin D2 expression in relation to  b -actin as measured by densitometer after treatment with different doses of 5-azaDC. Table 1  Association between cyclin D2 mRNA expression withpromoter hypermethylation in gastric cancers Cyclin D2 mRNACyclin D2 methylation Positive Negative Total Positive 8 23Negative 21 3 24Total 29 18 47 P o 0.001. Cyclin D2 methylation in gastric cancer   J Yu  et al 1562 British Journal of Cancer (2003)  88 (10), 1560–1565  &  2003 Cancer Research UK  M ol    e c ul    ar  an d  C el   l    ul    ar P  a t  h  ol    o  g  y  We next examined the potential association between clinico-pathological and molecular characteristics of gastric cancer with cyclin D2  methylation.  cyclin D2  methylation was more common incancer patients  X 60 years of age (78.3  vs  35.7%,  P  ¼ 0.01; Table 3).However, methylation in  cyclin D2  was not detected in any of the23 normal gastric biopsies including 10 patients who were  X 60years, suggesting that methylation is not an age-related phenom-enon in normal gastric epithelium. Otherwise, there was nosignificant association between  cyclin D2  methylation andclinicopathological parameters of tumour including tumourclassification, lymph node status and pathological grading. Bisulphite DNA sequencing To verify the MSP findings and to study the extent of promotermethylation, bisulphite DNA sequencing was performed. The CpG-rich region of the  cyclin D2  promoter between the nucleotides  1220 and   883 was sequenced after bisulphite modification(Figure 4). Bisulphite genomic sequencing of the representativePCR products showed that all the cytosines at non-CpG sites wereconverted to thymine. This excluded the possibility that successfulamplification was attributable to incomplete bisulphite conversion.Moreover, the results of MSP and bisulphite sequencing wereconcordant in both cell lines and primary gastric cancers,indicating that it is appropriate to draw inferences from theresults of the MSP.As shown in Figure 4, the CpG island exhibited extensivemethylation in the three cell lines without cyclin D2 expression(KATOIII, AGS, N87). In contrast, there was no methylation in theMKN28 cell lines with positive cyclin D2 expression. Notably,the percentage of methylation ranged from 18.5 to 88.9% in theMKN45 cell line (Figure 4). This partial methylation may explainthe low cyclin D2 mRNA expression in the MKN45 cell line asdetected by RT–PCR.Bisulphite sequencing was also performed in seven randomly selected gastric cancers: two with cyclin D2 expression (T2, T39),two with low cyclin D2 expression (T8, T35) and three cyclin D2-negative (T4, T6, T30) cancers (Figure 4). The three cases (T4, T6and T30) that showed hypermethylation by MSP had densely methylated alleles by bisulphite sequencing whereas the two caseswith low cyclin D2 expression (T8 and T35) had partially methylated CpG sites. In contrast, the two tumours with strongcyclin D2 expression (T2, T39) had virtually no methylationdetected. In addition, bisulphite sequencing of normal gastric Figure 3  Representative immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D2. ( A )Cyclin D2 expression was detected in gastric cancers without cyclin D2methylation. ( B ) In gastric cancers with promoter methylation in  cyclin D2 , there was no cyclin D2 immunoreactivity detected. ( C ) Normal gastricmucosa from noncancer subjects was negative for cyclin D2. Table 2  Association between cyclin D2 protein expression andpromoter hypermethylation in human gastric cancers Cyclin D2 proteinCyclin D2 methylation Positive Negative Total Positive 5 10 15Negative 11 2 13Total 16 12 28 P ¼ 0.006. Table 3  Association between cyclin D2 methylation and clinicopatho-logical characteristics of gastric cancers Variable CategoryTotalno.Cyclin D2methylation (%)  P  -value Sex Male 30 17 (56.7) 0.159Female 17 6 (35.3)Age (years)  X 60 23 18 (78.3) 0.01 o 60 14 5 (35.7)Lymph node metastasis Present 32 16 (50.0) 0.831Absent 15 7 (46.7)Depth of tumour 0.722T1 4 2 (50.0)T2 20 9 (45.0)T3 11 7 (63.6)T4 12 5 (41.7)Lauren classification Intestinal type 16 6 (37.5) 0.429Diffuse type 26 13 (50.0) Cyclin D2 methylation in gastric cancer   J Yu  et al 1563 British Journal of Cancer (2003)  88 (10), 1560–1565 &  2003 Cancer Research UK       M   o     l   e   c   u     l   a   r   a   n     d     C   e     l     l   u     l   a   r     P   a    t     h   o     l   o   g   y  mucosa (N1) showed the absence of methylation in the promoterregion. DISCUSSION DNA methylation forms repressive chromatin (Brooks  et al  , 1996;Bird and Wolffe, 1999; Baylin and Herman, 2000) and affects geneexpression (Baylin  et al  , 1998; Bird and Wolffe, 1999; Jones andLaird, 1999). Herein, we tested the association between  cyclin D2 promoter hypermethylation and loss of cyclin D2 expression ingastric cancer. We first examined the promoter methylation statusand expression of cyclin D2 in gastric cancer cell lines. Threegastric cancer cell lines (KATOIII, AGS and NCI-N87) with densemethylation at the CpG islands do not express cyclin D2 mRNAand protein. Treatment with 5-azaDC induced demethylation of the CpG islands with reactivation of gene expression in these cyclinD2-negative hypermethylated cell lines. The MKN28 cell line hadalmost no methylation and displayed strong cyclin D2 expression.Interestingly, the MKN45 cell line was noticed to have a reducedlevel of cyclin mRNA expression, which may be related to thepartial methylation of the promoter region. The same observationwas also found in primary human gastric cancers in which thedensity of methylation appears to have an inverse associationwith the expression of cyclin D2. To our knowledge, this is thefirst comprehensive examination of the promoter region of  cyclin D2 . In keeping with our finding, Lehmann  et al   (2002)reported that there was a significant increase in quantitativechanges in the methylation level from intraductal to invasivebreast cancer.Additionally, we showed that most human gastric cancers (15out of 23, 65.2%) with  cyclin D2  promoter hypermethylation hadno cyclin D2 mRNA expression whereas the majority (21 out of 24,87.5%) of tumours with unmethylated  cyclin D2  promoter regionhad cyclin D2 expression. Similar results were demonstrated inprotein level by Western blotting (Table 2). Taken together, theseresults suggest that promoter hypermethylation is a majormechanism underlying the loss of cyclin D2 function in bothgastric cell lines as well as in primary gastric cancer. Moreover, itoffers an explanation for the lack of cyclin D2 expression in asubset of gastric cancer (Yasogawa  et al  , 1998; Takano  et al  , 1999,2000). Intuitively, cyclin D2 expression may not be necessary in thedevelopment of a subset of gastric cancer.In this study, it is interesting to note that cyclin D2 is notexpressed in normal gastric tissues with unmethylated promoter.The reason for this discrepant finding between normal and cancertissues may be related to the fact that cyclin D2 is a direct target of Myc in which its expression is further controlled by   b -catenin (He et al  , 1998; Bouchard  et al  , 1999). We and others have previously shown that aberrant  b -catenin translocation can only be observed ingastric cancer tissues (To  et al  , 2001; Tong  et al  , 2001; Clements  et al  ,2002). Thus, it is reasonable to anticipate that cyclin D2 is absent innormal gastric tissues with intact Wnt signalling pathway.Promoter methylation, if involved tumour-suppressor genes(Lee  et al  , 1997; Iida  et al  , 2000; Song  et al  , 2000; Leung  et al  , 2001),usually results in selective growth advantage that favours thesurvival of neoplastic cells. However, it is increasingly recognisedthat promoter hypermethylation can also be detected in genesother than tumour-suppressor genes. One example is themethylation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in gastric and colorectalcancer (Toyota  et al  , 2000; Kikuchi  et al  , 2002). COX-2 is generally considered to promote cancer development, and suppression of COX-2 activity may have an antiproliferative effect on tumour.Several groups of investigators (Toyota  et al  , 2000; Kikuchi  et al  ,2002) indicated that the promoter of COX-2 gene is methylated in aproportion of gastric cancer but not in normal gastric tissues.Their findings raise the possibility that a subgroup of gastric orcolorectal cancers may not be responsive to the growth inhibitory effect of COX-2 inhibitors. In this manner, cyclin D2 over-expression is associated with dysregulation of cell cycle andappears to promote tumsrcenesis. Promoter hypermethylation of cyclin D2 with resultant loss of cyclin D2 may therefore have anantineoplastic effect on gastric cancer cells. However, it isimportant to recognise that cytosine methylation can alsoinfluence tumsrcenicity by mechanisms other than gene silencing.Methylated cytosines can undergo spontaneous deaminationresulting in C - T transitions and they are also preferred targetsfor G - T transversion mutations (Herman  et al  , 1996; Jones andBaylin, 2002). Thus, further studies are necessary to characterisethe functional consequences of   cyclin D2  methylation in theprocess of gastric carcinogenesis. 1234512345123456612345612345612345123457T4T6T8T30T35T39N1KATOIII1234512345AGS6712345612345123451234567N87MKN45MKN28T2 Figure 4  Bisulphite sequencing of   cyclin D2  promoter region. Thenucleotide sequence from  1220 to  883 of the cyclin D2 gene is shown.The individual CpG sites between two PCR primers are numberedsequentially. Cytosines at the CpG site are in capitalisation. The bisulphitesequencing PCR primers are bold and underlined whereas the MSP primersare shown as italic. DNA from five gastric cell lines, two cyclin D2-positivecancers (T2, T39), two cancers with low cyclin D2 expression (T8, T39)and three cyclin D2-negative (T4, T6, T30) cancers as well as one normalgastric tissue (N1) were bisulphite-treated, PCR-amplified and subcloned.The sequencing results from five to eight clones for each cell line andsamples are presented. Each horizontal line represents the sequencing resultof one subclone. CpG sites within 48bp are shown as one block.Methylated CpG sites are shown as ‘ K ’ whereas ‘ J ’ indicate unmethylatedCpG sites. Cyclin D2 methylation in gastric cancer   J Yu  et al 1564 British Journal of Cancer (2003)  88 (10), 1560–1565  &  2003 Cancer Research UK  M ol    e c ul    ar  an d  C el   l    ul    ar P  a t  h  ol    o  g  y
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We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

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