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A morphophonological parameter hierarchy for Amuzgo glottalization classes

A morphophonological parameter hierarchy for Amuzgo glottalization classes
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  A morphophonological parameter hierarchy for Amuzgo glottalization classes *** Draft version April 19, 2015 – please contact before citing ***Yuni KimUniversit of !anc"ester uni#$im%manc"ester#ac#u$  §1Introduction &nflectional mar$ing of person an' number in Amu(go, an )astern to+!anguean language of t"e aaca+-uerrero coastal bor'er region in sout"ern !eico, involves various stem+internal morp"op"onological alternations, most notabl in glottali(ation patterns an' in tone# .ot" can  be seen in t"e completive para'igm of t"e verb + t   j iʔ-  /put insi'e in 1#13ompletive forms of + t   j iʔ-  /put insi'e 4apia -arca n#'#6 7201sg#t  8 i 5: 1ecl#t  8 i 12 1incl#t  8 i 51 2sg#t  8 i 51 2pl#t  8 i 1 :sg#t  8 i :; :pl#t  8 i 1 &n 1, t"e se<uencing of t"e glottali(ation gesture varies b person categor# All of t"e first+person forms "ave rimes t"at consist of larngeali(e' vo=els, transcribe' as >i?, ="ile secon'+ an' t"ir'+person forms en' in >i?, t"at is, mo'al vo=els follo=e' b a glottal stop# 4ones, mar$e' =it" superscript numbers 1@lo=, 5@"ig", also c"ange accor'ing to person an' number Kim, to appear#4"is eample illustrates t"e fact t"at leical entries of Amu(go verbs contain t=o 'istinct sets of inflection+class information, one for glottali(ation an' anot"er for tone# 4"e forms in 1 s"o= 8ust one of several possible patterns of para'igmatic alternations in glottali(ation# i$e=ise, t"e tones represent 8ust one of at least 15 possible tonal inflectional classes, ="ose members"ip cannot be pre'icte' from ot"er factors# As s"o=n b Kim to appear, t"e glottali(ation an' tone classes furt"ermore 'o not correlate =it" eac" ot"erB t"e are cross+classifing#ur aim "ere =ill be to ma$e some sense of t"e Amu(go inventor of glottali(ation classes, ="ic" at first glance ma loo$ rat"er ran'om# Ce focus on t"e variet of an Ee'ro Amu(gos, aaca & F:9+:6 a(g# 4"e onl previous c"aracteri(ation of t"e glottali(ation classes is foun' in .uc$ 2000B a lig"tl revise' version of t"is is also use' in Kim to appear# 4"e analsis presente' "ere is base' primaril on an etensive manuscript b Germn 4apia -arca, ="ic" lists t"e con8ugations of over 1000 verbs an' ot"er inflectable roots across person, number, an' 4A! categories 4apia -arca n#'## Hoint revie= of parts of t"is manuscript b 4apia -arca an' mself, inclu'ing proofrea'ing an' au'io recor'ing, too$  place in an Ee'ro Amu(gos in 2012 an' 201:# Giel'=or$ =it" ot"er native spea$ers =as con'ucte' in 2010, 2012, an' 201:, an' confirms a "ig" 'egree of consistenc bot" =it" 4apia -arca n#'# an' =it" t"e & materials te=art I te=art 2000, .uc$ 2000#4"e table in 2 summari(es t"e full set of pro'uctive glottali(ation patterns foun' in t"e 'ata# &n t"e top ro=, it inclu'es t"e ne= class labels t"at =ill be propose' in t"is paper# 4"e table sc"emati(es sllable rimes, ="ic" are t"e locus of t"e alternations# ince first+ person eclusive an' inclusive forms never 'iffer in glottali(ation =it"in a para'igm, for our 1   purposes t"e =ill be conflate' into a first+person plural 1pl# cell#2Amu(go glottali(ation classes3lassa 1b 2c :' ;e 51sg#JJJJJJ2sg#JJJJJ:sg#JJJJJ1pl#JJJJJJ2pl#JJJJJ:pl#JJJJJ4"e JL in 3lasses 1, 2, an' 5 s"oul' be rea' as J or JL6 specificall, t"ese t"ree  patterns are foun' bot" on verbs t"at "ave a consistentl non+larngeali(e' vo=el J t"roug"out t"e para'igm, an' on verbs t"at "ave a consistentl larngeali(e' vo=el J# 4"e essence of 3lasses 1, 2, an' 5 lies in t"e alternating presence an' absence of subse<uent segments# &n contrast, t"e 3lass : an' ; patterns in 2c' are 'efine' b para'igmatic alternations bet=een non+larngeali(e' an' larngeali(e' vo=els#4"e main i'ea of t"is paper is t"at t"e Amu(go glottali(ation+class sstem can be un'erstoo' in terms of a "ierarc" of morp"op"onological parameters, ="ic" 'efine all an' onl t"e five pro'uctive classes# 4"e approac" follo=s feature+base' analses of inflectional class structure suc" as 4rommer 200M an' Aleia'ou I !Nller 200M# & argue t"at it is  possible to posit un'erling forms plus a limite' set of operations t"at 'erive t"e stem alternations, in a =a t"at 'evelops a t"eor of internal relations"ips among t"e glottali(ation classes# 4=o $e claims are ma'e# Girst, =e recogni(e a 'istinction bet=een leical an' inflectional glottal stops6 in ot"er =or's, glottal stops t"at are present in un'erling representations, as oppose' to glottal stops t"at ma be concatenate' as part of morp"ological operations t"at are specific to certain inflectional classes# 4"is 'istinction solves some  problems in t"e eisting analsis b .uc$ 2000, ="ere glottali(ation+class 'istinctions are 'efine' as sets of operations – inclu'ing subtractive operations – on t"ir'+person stems, ="ic" are assume' erroneousl, as =ill be argue' to represent un'erling forms#Jaring patterns of glottal+stop concatenation 'o not suffice to 'efine all of t"e glottali(ation+class 'istinctions# 4"e secon' ma8or claim is t"at glottali(ation classes are also c"aracteri(e' b 'iffering sets of p"onological processes# 4"is results in a sort of 'ual morp"ologicall con'itione' p"onolog6 a p"onological process can be triggere' not 8ust =it"in a certain morp"ological construction, but also b a morp"oleical inflection+class specification# Gor eample, t"e 'istinction bet=een 3lasses 2 an' : can be un'erstoo' as non+application versus application of a glottal 'issimilation process# C"ile a greater 'egree of abstraction ma eventuall permit analses of t"e putative p"onological operations as morp"ologicall concatenative follo=ing e#g# 4rommer 2011, t"e analsis presente' "ere in'ees 'ifferent cop"onologies &n$elas I Ooll 2007 to 'ifferent inflectional classes# &n a sense =e preserve t"e insig"t of .uc$ 2000 t"at glottali(ation classes are c"aracteri(e' b morp"op"onological operations, but =e present a novel vie= of ="at t"e operations are#4"e structure of t"e paper is as follo=s# .rief bac$groun' information on t"e language is provi'e' in P2# &n P:, =e give an overvie= of t"e propose' parameter "ierarc", setting out 2  t"e 'ivision of labor bet=een un'erling forms an' morp"op"onological operations in t"e  pro'uction of t"e observe' para'igms# &n particular, =e set up t"e concept of leical versus inflectional glottal stops# 4"e follo=ing sections provi'e concrete illustrations of eac" glottali(ation class, 8ustifing an' formali(ing t"e analsis of morp"op"onological processes in more 'etail6 P; focuses on t"e 'istinctions among 3lasses 1, 2, an' :, ="ic" cover t"e un'erlingl vo=el+final roots, ="ile P5 turns to 3lasses ; an' 5, ="ic" are argue' to be t"e t=o possible inflectional patterns on un'erlingl glottal+final roots# &n PF, =e conclu'e b  pointing out some successful pre'ictions of t"e propose' analsis in comparison =it" .uc$ 2000 an' some ot"er conceivable alternatives# §2Background on Amuzgo Amu(go is spo$en b t"e ma8orit of resi'ents in t"e municipalit of an Ee'ro Amu(gos, ="o numbere' about F500 in t"e 2010 census, alt"oug" t"ere are signs t"at it is not being activel ac<uire' b all c"il'ren# Erevious =or$ on Amu(go of an Ee'ro Amu(gos inclu'es an & 'ictionar te=art I te=art 2000 an' accompaning s$etc" grammar .uc$ 2000, as =ell as =or$ b t"e native spea$er linguist Germn 4apia -arca =it" 4"omas mit"+tar$, inclu'ing a 'ictionar 4apia -arca 1999 an' analses of tone mit"+tar$ I 4apia -arca 19M; an' morp"osnta mit"+tar$ I 4apia -arca 2002# 4"roug"out t"e paper, tones =ill be mar$e' =it" superscript numbers# 4"e an Ee'ro Amu(gos variet of Amu(go "as t"e eig"t contrastive tones liste' an' 'escribe' in :, of ="ic" onl t"e five asteris$e' ones are eploite' for inflectional purposes# 4"e numbers matc" mit"+tar$ I 4apia -arcas 19M; labelling sc"eme, =it" t"e eception of t"eir Q:1R tone, ="ic" & ren'er as Q51R follo=ing .uc$s 2000 alto-bajo  /"ig"+lo= 'esignation, an' on t"e basis of evi'ence for t"is representation as argue' for b Kim, to appear#:4ones of an Ee'ro Amu(gos Amu(go5"ig" level:5mi'+"ig" rising5:*"ig"+mi' falling:;mi' rising51*"ig"+lo= falling:*mi'12*lo= rising1*lo=* @ use' in tonal inflection&n terms of larngeal p"onotactics, Amu(go allo=s si tpes of sllable rimes, s"o=n in ;# A vo=el can be mo'al, breat", or larngeali(e', an' t"e onl possible co'a consonant is a glottal stop# 1 ;Son+larngeali(e' Jarngeali(e' J So co'aJ"JJGinal J"JJ.reat" an' larngeali(e' vo=els are ren'ere' as "J an' J, respectivel, in approimate accor'ance =it" t"eir p"onetics# i$e in ot"er to+!anguean languages, it is necessar to implement p"onation an' tone contrasts on a single vo=el, but t"eir p"onetic 1Sasali(e' vo=els are usuall pronounce' =it" an ecrescent nasal consonant, e#g# >Tm? for T, but t"ese  postvocalic nasals are not p"onologicall contrastive# :  incompatibilit causes t"em to be reali(e' in se<uence rat"er t"an simultaneousl6 non+mo'al  p"onation in t"e first part of t"e vo=el, t"en tone in t"e secon' ilverman 1997# !ost of our 'iscussion =ill abstract a=a from breat"iness, ="ic" 'oes not pla an active role in t"e glottali(ation class sstem, an' use JL as a sc"emati(ation referring to all non+larngeali(e' vo=els#4=o furt"er bac$groun' notes s"oul' be ma'e# Alt"oug" =e concentrate on stem alternations in glottali(ation, t"e eponents of person mar$ing a''itionall inclu'e tone, affiation, an' vo=el+<ualit alternations, ="ic" =ill be mentione' ="ere relevant but =ill not receive eten'e' analsis# Also, t"e person+mar$ing sstem 'escribe' in t"is paper is use' =it" transitive verbs, intransitive verbs =it" agentive sub8ects see .uc$ 20006;15ff#, mit"+tar$ I 4apia -arca 2002, an' in possessive mar$ing in a close' class of closel possesse' nouns# &n non+agentive intransitive verbs, person inflection uses a 'ifferent sstem of mar$ing ="ere no stem alternations are involve'# §3Underlying forms and lexical versus inflectional glottal stops 4"e goal of t"is section is to posit un'erling root s"apes for eac" glottali(ation class# 4"e UVs serve as a starting point for un'erstan'ing structural commonalities an' 'ifferences  bet=een t"e glottali(ation patterns# 4"e tas$ is nontrivial, since for most classes, t"ere is no imme'iatel obvious null "pot"esis as to ="ic" s"ape – if in'ee' an – is un'erling, an' ="ic" ot"er s"apes "ave been 'erive' from it b morp"op"onological operations# Eer"aps t"e best place to start is 3lass 1, ="ere onl t"e 2sg# form 'iffers from t"e ot"ers# 4"e 3lass 1 column, along =it" t"e ro= s"o=ing 2sg# forms across classes, is  bol'face' in 5#53lass 1 an' 2sg# forms3lass1 + !"# 2:;51sg# !"# JJJJJ2sg# !"#!!"#!#!#!!"#! :sg# !"# JJJJ1pl# !"# JJJJJ2pl# !"# JJJJ:pl# !"# JJJJGor 3lass 1, a simple ma8orit rulesL metric points to an un'erling J or J root# 4"is root surfaces unc"ange' ecept in t"e 2sg# form, ="ic" a''s a glottal stop + ʔ  # 4"us, t"e onl glottali(ation operation t"at applies in 3lass 1 is concatenation of a 2sg# suffi + ʔ  # C"en =e loo$ at t"e full set of glottali(ation classes, =e a''itionall observe t"at t"e 2sg# forms en' in a glottal stop across t"e boar'# 4"is fact suggests t"at a 2sg# suffi + ʔ ma be foun' in all classes, strengt"ening t"e case for its eistence as an inflectional ob8ect# Ce =ill a'opt t"e  position t"at t"e 2sg# + ʔ is in'ee' present in all para'igms, even t"oug" t"is turns out not to be a straig"tfor=ar' claim, as 'iscusse' s"ortl#4"e remain'er of t"is section =ill establis" a basic 'istinction bet=een classes ="ere un'erling roots are leicall vo=el+final 3lasses 1, 2, an' : versus glottal+stop final 3lasses ; an' 5# 4"is 'ivision, 'espite being base' on p"onological rat"er t"an ;  morp"ological criteria, can be t"oug"t of as t"e first parameter t"at gives structure to t"e glottali(ation+class sstem#FGirst parameter cut6 leical stem s"apeJ+final+final W W3l# 1, 2, :3l# ;, 5Assuming t"e un'erling root s"apes in 7 – ="ere 3lasses 1, 2, an' : "ave vo=el+final roots, ="ile 3lasses ; an' 5 "ave glottal stop+final ones – t"e bol'face' cells in eac" column in'icate t"e forms in ="ic" morp"ological operations must be responsible for t"e appearance of an alternation in glottali(ation pattern#7Un'erling root s"apes for eac" class3lass 1 $ !"#2 $ !"#3 $ !#% $ #!& $ !"#! 1sg#JJJ !#!"#!# 2sg# !"#!!"#!#! JJ:sg#J !"#!#! JJ1pl#JJJ !#!"#!# 2pl#JJJJJ:pl#JJJJJGor t"e J+final roots in 3lasses 1, 2, an' :, t"e onl possible operations involve insertion of final glottal stops in t"e 2sg# an'or :sg forms# Gor t"e +final roots in 3lasses ; an' 5, all an' onl t"e first+person forms in bot" singular an' plural are 'erive'# 4"us, a generali(ation enable' b t"is analsis of un'erling forms is t"at t"e un'erling root s"ape i#e# ="et"er J+final or +final alrea' constrains t"e possible patterns of stem allomorp"# An issue t"at arises at t"is point is ambiguit about t"e true stem s"ape of t"e 2sg# forms in 3lasses 2+5# 4o t"e etent t"at a 2sg# suffi -ʔ is "pot"esi(e', it is not clear ="et"er t"e final >? in t"ese forms is 'ue to a +final stem, or to t"e 2sg# suffi# )vi'ence t"at t"e 2sg# stems can still be anal(e' as +final, in'epen'entl of t"e 2sg# suffi, comes from tonal inflection# 4"e 'ata in M s"o= t"e t=o most common patterns of tonal inflection in singular  para'igms# 4oget"er, t"ese surface patterns account for over "alf of all sample' para'igms in Kim to appear, but t"e are in complementar 'istribution6 Ma is foun' onl on verbs ="ose :sg# forms are vo=el+final i#e# glottali(ation class 1, ="ile Mb is foun' onl on verbs ="ose :sg# forms are +final i#e# glottali(ation classes 2+5#M4onal evi'ence for stem+final glottal stops in 2sg# formsa# Default tones, 3lass 1b# Default tones, 3lasses 2+51sg#tX 5: Q5:RtX 5: Q5:R2sg#tX 5: Q5:RtX 51 Q51R:sg#tX :; tX 51 /smell, in"ale completive/brea$, split completiveKim to appear anal(es bot" patterns in M as reflees of t"e same un'erling 5
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