A BAC-based physical map of the apple genome

A BAC-based physical map of the apple genome
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  A BAC-based physical map of the apple genome Yuepeng Han  a  , Ksenija Gasic  a  , Brandy Marron  b , Jonathan E. Beever   b , Schuyler S. Korban  a, ⁎ a   Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA  b  Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Received 31 October 2006; accepted 20 December 2006Available online 31 January 2007 Abstract Genome-wide physical mapping is an essential step toward investigating the genetic basis of complex traits as well as pursuing genomicsresearch of virtually all plant and animal species. We have constructed a physical map of the apple genome from a total of 74,281 BAC clonesrepresenting  ∼ 10.5× haploid genome equivalents. The physical map consists of 2702 contigs, and it is estimated to span  ∼ 927 Mb in physicallength. The reliability of contig assembly was evaluated by several methods, including assembling contigs using variable stringencies, assemblingcontigs using fingerprints from individual libraries, checking consensus maps of contigs, and using DNA markers. Altogether, the resultsdemonstrated that the contigs were properly assembled. The apple genome-wide BAC-based physical map represents the first draft genomesequence not only for any member of the large Rosaceae family, but also for all tree species. This map will play a critical role in advancedgenomics research for apple and other tree species, including marker development in targeted chromosome regions, fine-mapping and isolation of genes/QTL, conducting comparative genomics analyses of plant chromosomes, and large-scale genomics sequencing.© 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  Keywords:  BAC clone fingerprints; Contig map; Apple genome; Contig assembly Apples are among the most popular and important fruit treesin the world. The domesticated apple,  Malus × domestica Borkh., belongs to the Rosaceae family. The family consistsof over 100 genera and 3000 species, most of which are perennial trees, shrubs, and herbs [1,2]. The apple is self-incompatible and highly heterozygous and displays a juvenile period of 6 to 10 years or more. These characteristics seriouslyhamper apple breeding efforts. To save time and space andreduce cost, it is imperative to identify young seedlings withdesirable horticultural traits accurately using molecular marker-assisted selection. Hence, identifying molecular markers linkedto major genes/quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing todesirable economic traits has become an important goal in applegenetics studies. To meet this goal, genetic tools such as geneticlinkage maps, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries,and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been recentlydeveloped [3 – 8] (see also ). To date, molecular markers that are either close to or withingenes responsible for a few important traits have beendeveloped [9,10].It has been widely reported that genome-wide physical mapsnot only serve as platforms for large-scale genome sequencingefforts, but also are very helpful for various other purposes suchas development of DNA markers for a genomic region of interest, QTL fine-mapping, effective positional cloning of genes, high-throughput EST mapping (functional genomics),and comparative genomics (synteny studies) [11,12]. To faci-litate future advanced genomics research, such as gene and/or QTL fine-mapping as well as structural and functional analysesof the apple genome, it is necessary to develop a genome-wide physical map of the apple genome.To date, physical maps have been constructed for human,various animals, and many other organisms [13 – 17]. In plants, physical maps have been established for   Arabidopsis thaliana [18], sorghum [19], rice [20], and soybean [12]. Genome-wide  physical maps have already proven to be powerful tools andinfrastructures for advanced genomics research of human andseveral model species. To develop these various physical maps,several approaches have been developed, including BAC Genomics 89 (2007) 630 – ⁎  Corresponding author. Fax: +1 217 333 8298.  E-mail address: (S.S. Korban).0888-7543/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.12.010  restriction-based fingerprinting [15,21], iterative hybridization [18], and sequence tag connectors (STCs) [22] involving use of  BAC-end sequences for connecting BAC clones by sequenceidentity. The restriction-based fingerprinting method is lesshindered by the presence of repeated sequences within agenome than the iterative hybridization method, and it is muchfaster and economical than the STC method. Therefore,restriction-based fingerprinting offers a reasonable and power-ful means of rapid development of genome-wide physical maps.In fact, restriction-based fingerprinting has been successfullyapplied in the physical mapping of large complex genomes,including human [15], chicken [11,17], sorghum [19], rice [20,23], and soybean [12]. Recently, progress has been made in genomics research of various fruit trees and woody plants. For example, efforts for constructing a physical map and integrating the physical mapwith the linkage map in  Prunus , almond, and peach, are wellunder way [24 – 28] (see also ). The draft genome sequence of the black cottonwood tree,  Po- pulus trichocarpa , has been completed using a shotgun-basedsequencing strategy [29]. However, no genome-wide physicalmap has been reported so far for the apple, or any other member of the Rosaceae family, or for any tree species. The apple not only is a major economic fruit crop grown worldwide, but alsoserves as an important model species for functional genomicsresearch of woody perennial angiosperms due to its relativelysmall genome size of 750 Mb/haploid and availability of various genomics resources including ESTs, genetic maps, andBAC libraries [3 – 10,30]. Therefore, developing a whole-genome map for the apple not only will play a critical role inour understanding of the apple genome structure and function, but also will be useful in pursuing plant comparative genomicsstudies, particularly between annual herbaceous and woody perennial plants. We report here the first genome-wide BAC- based physical map of the apple genome using an agarose gel- based restriction fingerprinting method [15,17]. Results  BAC fingerprinting  A total of 82,503 BAC clones, derived from two comple-mentary BAC libraries, were fingerprinted using the agarosegel-based restriction fingerprinting method [13]. An example of a DNA fingerprinting agarose gel is shown in Fig. 1. Of theseclones, 8222 (9.96%) were deleted during fingerprint editingdue to either nonrecombinant clones or cross-contamination between clones. Thus, a total of 74,281 clones were success-fully fingerprinted and entered into the FPC database for contigassembly. These clones represented  ∼ 10.5× haploid genomeequivalents. Among those clones, 44.4%, equivalent to 4.4×haploid genomes, were from the  Bam HI library, and 55.6%,equivalent to 6.1× haploid genomes, were from the  Hin dIIIlibrary. Clones from the  Bam HI library and  Hin dIII library hadan average of 23.6 and 26.0 bands per clone, respectively (Table1). In addition, among useful fingerprints, 45 were derived fromDNA of the wild crabapple species  Malus floribunda  821,while all remaining others were derived from DNA of the applecultivar   “ GoldRush. ”  Fingerprint analysis and contig assembly To assess the accuracy of the fingerprints, frequencies of each migration value for all clones from the  Hin dIII library Fig. 1. Agarose gel exhibiting 96 BAC clones digested with  Hin dIII. DNA size standards are present in every fifth lane. The gel was stained using SYBR green andvisualized by fluorescence.631 Y. Han et al. / Genomics 89 (2007) 630  –  637   were calculated. The results are presented in Fig. 2. Since BACfingerprints were derived from  Hin dIII complete digestion, allclones contained a vector fragment of   ∼ 7.5 kb in size. Vector migrations from different gels were very similar, and their values were close to  ∼ 1298 (Fig. 2). Moreover, vector fragments exhibited higher frequencies than any of the other  bands (Fig. 2). These results clearly indicated that there waslittle variation among gels and that our fingerprint data werereliable.Contig assembly was performed using the program FPCversion7.2[31](seealso  fpc/ ). To determine the appropriate cutoff value or   “ Sulstonscore, ”  the tolerance and cutoff values were varied, and their effects on known overlapping clones were evaluated. Atolerance of 7 and a cutoff value of 3×10 − 9 were finally usedfor automatic contig assembly. Contigs with five or morequestionable clones were rearranged at higher stringencies(lower cutoff values) using the DQer function of the FPCversion 7.2. The DQer automatically reanalyzed those contigswith five or more questionable clones by reassembling clonesup to three times, each time the cutoff value being lowered by afactor of 10. We ran the DQer function for several times at afinal cutoff down to 3×10 − 16 (by setting at 3×10 − 13 ).Following the automatic assembly, 68,058 BAC clones (92%)were assembled into 3943 contigs (Table 2). The physicallengthof the automated contigs was estimated to be 943.8 Mb, basedon 242,001 unique bands, and each band was equivalent to3.9 kb (Table 2).Subsequent to automated map assembly, a manual review of the assembly was conducted as it is an essential step for refiningthe relative order of clones within contigs, identifying joints between contigs, and disassembling larger chimeric contigs.First,wemanuallycheckedeverycontigusingtheFPCfunctionsof Calc CB map, the Contig window, and the Fingerprint window. Of 3943 contigs, only 351 (8.9%) contained 1 – 4questionable clones (more than 50% of bands were unmatched),most of which had only 1 questionable clone. All questionablecontigsweretheneithersplitatahigherstringencyorrearrangedafter removing the questionable clone(s). Potential chimericcontigsthatfailedtooverlapaccordingtofingerprintingpatternsof clones were disassembled. Second, to identify potential junctions,weusedthoseclonesatextremeendsofeachcontigtoquery the FPC database at a lower required fingerprint over-lapping stringency (first cutoff at 3×10 − 8 and then at 3×10 − 7 )than was used during initial assembly. Contig pairs were mergedif their terminal clones shared more than 10 bands and their overall fingerprint patterns supported the junction. Individualsingletoncloneswerealsoaddedtocontigsasneededtoincreasecoverage of sparse regions. As a result, the total number of contigs of the physical map was reduced to 2702 (Table 2). Theassembled 2702 contigs consisted of 237,763 unique bandscollectively spanning 927.3 Mb in physical length. The longest contig comprised 287 clones, encompassing 702 unique bands Table 1Sources of BACs fingerprinted for the apple physical mapCloningsite No. of clonesfingerprintedMeaninsert size(kb) No. of clonesused inmappingValid bands per cloneGenomecoverage  Bam HI 35,712 105 32,992 23.6 4.4×  Hin dIII 46,791 115 41,289 26.0 6.1×Total 82,503 110 74,281 24.9 10.5×Fig. 2. Frequency distribution of band migrations from the  Hin dIII library. Each band value in the FPC database of the  Hin dIII library was graphed against the number of times it was found in the database. Vector fragments had a much higher frequency than any other bands, with an average migration of   ∼ 1298.632  Y. Han et al. / Genomics 89 (2007) 630  –  637   and spanning 2.7 Mb in physical length. An example of BACcontigs of the physical map and the distribution of the BACsfrom the apple libraries is presented in Fig. 3. Contig reliability Several different approaches were used to assess contigreliability. First, we determined the stability of contigs at different cutoff values. By increasing the stringency of contigassembly from 3×10 − 9 to 3×10 − 10 , the number of contigsincreased from 3943 to 4718. Hundreds of contigs assembled at the higher stringency were randomly selected and comparedwith corresponding contigs assembled at the lower stringency.A major difference was observed in clone content due to contigsplit at the higher stringency, but this was not detected in cloneorder. Of the 3943 contigs, approximately 380 were split at thehigher stringency, which was less than 10% of the initial totalcontig number. Second, we assembled contigs using separatefingerprint data from each of the  Bam HI and  Hin dIII BAClibraries. A total of 100 randomly selected contigs wereassembled from each of the two libraries and compared withtheir corresponding contigs in the physical map. The resultsshowed that 92 and 96% of the contigs from  Bam HI and  Hin- dIII BAC libraries, respectively, were shown to be in completeagreement with their corresponding contigs in the physical mapin both clone content and order.For the third approach, we checked contig score and thenumber of extra bands for each contig using the consensus bandmaps (Fig. 4). The contig score is used as an indicator of groupalignment of all clones within a contig [32]. The majority of thecontigs had a contig score ranging from 0.88 to 1.0, whereas asmall number of contigs had a score ranging between 0.81 and0.88. Meanwhile, if a clone within a contig was not aquestionable clone, but had more than 10 extra bands (only afew such cases were encountered in this study), the best matchfor the clone was determined. The clone was then either removed or rearranged within the same contig. Moreover,fingerprint patterns in the Fingerprint window were also used toevaluate contig reliability (Fig. 5). We checked fingerprint  patterns of every contig to ensure that each clone within a contigwas properly ordered with respect to its most closely relatedneighboring clones.Finally, we checked three contigs using either DNA markersor PCR probes. The first was the contig spanning the region of the  Vf    gene, which is responsible for apple scab resistance. The Vf   -linked SCAR marker ACS-3 was first used to screen the Table 2Status of the apple physical map before and after manual editingAutomatic contigassemblyAfter manualediting Number of clones in FPCdatabase74,281 74,281 Number of singletons 6,223 5,953 Number of contigs 3,943 2,702Contigs containing>200 clones 2 5101 – 200 clones 21 6751 – 100 clones 212 26626 – 50 clones 522 53710 – 25 clones 1,407 9453 – 9 clones 1,534 7542 clones 245 128Unique bands of the contigs 242,001 237,763Physical length of the contigs inmegabase pairs943.8 927.3Fig. 3. Example of the BAC contigs of the apple physical map spanning the  Vf    gene region. Only partial clones of the contig are shown. The clones prefixed with  “ GB ” were constructed from the cultivar GoldRush and those with  “ MB ”  from the wild crabapple  M. floribunda  821. ACS-3, ACS-6, ACS-8, ACS-9, and ACS-10 wereDNA-based markers tightly linked to the  Vf    locus.633 Y. Han et al. / Genomics 89 (2007) 630  –  637   Fig. 4. Example of a consensus band map of a BAC contig of the apple physical map.Fig. 5. Example of the clone order fingerprints of a BAC contig of the apple physical map.634  Y. Han et al. / Genomics 89 (2007) 630  –  637 
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