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   1 DISASTER MANAGEMENT  INTRODUCTION: Disaster is any occurrence that causes ecological disruption, loss of human life, and deterioration of health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside that affected to community or area. Disaster occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, disrupting normal life and infrastructure of social services including health care system. For this reason a country’s health system and public health infrastructure must be organized and kept ready to act in any emergency situations as well as under normal conditions. To meet the challenges of emergency and disaster situation, the government of India has identified the nodel Ministries to earmark responsibilities to the various concerned departments/and sectors and to coordinate the entire activities relating to specific types of disaster and also support Ministry to develop sectoral contingency planning for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. DEFINATION OF HAZARD- A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or human-made environment that adversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster. DEFINATION OF DISASTER- A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to copy using only its own resources. Disaster are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden or slow), or according to their cause (natural or man made) CAUSAL FACTORS OF DISASTER- The magnitude of each disaster, measured in deaths, damage, or costs for a given developing country increases with the increased marginalization of the population. This is caused  by a high birthrate, problems of land tenure and economic opportunity, and the lack or misallocation of recourse to meet the basic human needs of an expanding population. Poverty The most important single influence on the impact of a disaster. All other factors could  be lessened if the affected population were not also limited by poverty. Virtually all disaster studies show that the wealthiest of the population either survive the disaster unaffected or are able to recover quickly. Across the broad spectrum of disaster, poverty generally makes  people vulnerable to the impact of hazards. Poverty explains why people in urban areas are   2 forced to live on hills that are prone to landslides, or why people settle near volcanoes or rivers that invariably flood their banks. Poverty explains why droughts claim poor peasant farmers as victims an rarely the wealthy, and why famines more other than not are the result of a lack of purchasing power to buy food rather than an absence of food. Population Growth There is an obvious connection between the increase in losses from a disaster and the increase in population. If there are more people and structures where a disaster strikes, then it is likely there will be more of an impact. The growth of population has been so spectacular that it is inevitable that more people will be affected by disaster because more will be forced to live and work in unsafe areas. Increasing numbers of people will be competing for a limited amount of resources (such as, employment opportunities, and land) which can lead to conflict. Rapid Urbanization Rapid population growth and migration are related to the major phenomenon of rapid urbanization. This process is also accelerated in developing countries. It is chatagarised by the rural poor or civilians in an area of conflict moving to metropolitan areas in search of economic opportunities and security. These massive numbers of urban poor increasingly find fewer options for availability of safe and desirable places to build their houses. Here again, competition for scare resources, an inevitable consequence, can lead to human made disaster. Transitions in cultural practices Many of the inevitable changes that occur in all societies lead to an increase in the societies, vulnerability to disaster.Obviously,all societies are constantly changing and in a continual state of transition. These transitions are often extremely disruptive and uneven, leaving gaps in social coping mechanisms and technology. These transitions include nomadic populations that become sedentary rural people who move to urban areas, and both rural and urban people who move from one economic level to another. More broadly, these examples are typical of a shift from non-industrialized to industrializing societies. Environmental degradation Many disasters are either caused or exacerbated by environmental degradation. Deforestation leads to rapid rain run off, which contributes to flooding. The destruction of mangrove swamps decreases a coast line’s ability to resi st tropical winds and storm surges. Lack of awareness and information Disaster can also happen because people vulnerable to them simply didn’t know how to get out of harm’s way or to take protective measures. This ignorance may not necessarily be a function of poverty, but a lack of awareness of what measures can be taken to build safe structures on safe locations. Perhaps some people did not know about safe evacuation routes and procedures. Other population may not know where to turn for assistance in times for   3 acute distress.Nevertheless; this point should not be taken as a justification for ignoring the coping mechanisms of the majority of people affected by disaster. In most disaster prone societies, there is wealth of understanding about disaster threats and responses. This understanding should be incorporated into any efforts to provide external assistance. War and civil strife In this text war and civil strife are regarded as hazards that are extreme events that  produce disaster. War and civil strife often results in displaced people, a target population of this training programme.The causal factors of war and civil strife include competition for scarce resources, religious or ethnic intolerance, and ideological differences. Many of these are also byproducts of the preceding six causal factors of disaster. TYPES OF DISASTER Natural hazards   4 The discussion about disasters and emergencies resulting from natural and human made hazards has been developed in general terms.However,each hazard has its own charactristics.To understand the significance and implications of a particular type of disaster we must have a basic understanding about the nature,casuses and efforts of each hazard type. The list of hazard types is very long. Many occur infrequently or impact a very small  population. Other hazards, such as severe snowstorms, often occur in areas that are prepared to deal with them and seldom become disaster.However, from the perspective of a disaster victim it is not particularly useful to distinguish between minor and major disasters. Some disasters are now of limited interest to the international community. These include avalanches, fog, frost, hail, lightning, snowstorms and tornadoes. There are several hazard types for which there is widespread concern. They can be categorized as follows: Sudden onset hazards-(geological and climatic hazards) Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, Tropical storms, Volcanic eruptions, Landslides. Slow onset hazards-(environmental hazards) Drought, Famine, Environmental degradation, desertification, Deforestation, Pest infestation. Industrial/Technological-System failures/accidents, Spillages, Explosions, Fires. War and civil strife-Armed aggression, Insurgency, Terrorism and other actions leading to displaced persons and refugees. Epidemic-Water and/or food-borne diseases, persons-to-persons diseases (conduct and respiratory spread), vector-borne diseases and complications from wounds. Earthquakes Causal phenomena: Slippage of crusted rock along a fault or area of strain and rebound to new alignment. General characteristics and effect: Shaking of earth caused by waves on and below the earth’s surface  causing:    Surface faulting    Aftershocks    Tsunamis    Tremors, vibrations    Liquefaction    Landslides Predictability: Probability of occurrence can be determined but not exact timing. Forecasting is  based on monitoring of seismic activity, historical incidance, and observations. Factors contributing to vulnerability:    Location of settlements in seismic areas.    Structures which are not resistant to ground motion.    Dense collections of buildings with high occupancy.    Lack of access to information about earthquake risks.
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