Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role of English as a Second Language in Canadian Society

Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role of English as a Second Language in Canadian Society Haja Mohideen Mohamed Ali Department of English Language and Literature International Islamic University Malaysia Tasdiq Nomaira Alam Department of
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    Arab World English Journal ISSN: 2229-9327 275  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No.3 September 2015 Pp. 275  –   292 Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role of English as a Second Language in Canadian Society Haja Mohideen Mohamed Ali Department of English Language and Literature International Islamic University Malaysia Tasdiq Nomaira Alam Department of English Language and Literature International Islamic University Malaysia Abstract This study examined acculturation and adaptation of the immigrants in their new intercultural setting in Toronto, Canada, as well as the role of English language in their lives. The research made use of triangulation of methods as three types of instruments were used to collect the data: structured questionnaire, open-ended questionnaire and interview. Data were collected based on the immigrants‟ perce ptions on numerous variables for instance, acculturation attitudes, cultural identity, perceived discrimination, sociocultural adaptation, importance of English language, language proficiency and language difficulties, scope and facilities in Canada, immig rants‟ point of view towards the society, their attempts to integrate with natives and so on. Sixty four immigrants from different countries participated in the study. It was discovered from the research findings that Canadian immigrants initially feel alienated and face numerous difficulties to adjust their lives in a new and unfamiliar surrounding, but as soon as they acculturate with the existing environment, they feel contented and find themselves a part of the society though many impositions due to social norms, lack of English language proficiency, discrimination and stigma being an immigrant often result in hindrance. The study also exposed the importance of English language in the immigrants‟ lives. Results show that the immigrants who are well educa ted and fluent in English are more involved and accepted in the Canadian society.  Key words : Acculturation, migration, social cohesion, target language acquisition.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No3 September 2015 Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role English Ali  & Alam Arab World English Journal ISSN: 2229-9327 276 1 . Introduction Many countries in the industrially developed world have much attraction for those from countries suffering from political instability, persecution, famine, poverty and seemingly endless wars. So, they migrate in search of a better life where they may feel secure from the grave problems plaguing their nations. They risk their life to cross the perilous seas to reach the shores of Europe and Australia, for example. Migration, according to Bhugra (2004) “is a process of social change where an individual, alone or accompanied by others, because of one or more reasons   leaves one geographical area for prolonged stay or permanent settlement in another geographical area” (Bhugra, 2004, p. 129). The successful migrants do not have a bed of roses laid out for them. Some may fairly quickly acculturate if they are able to speak the language of the host country, have similar religious identity, share common social values, etc. Migrants may experience “a sense of loss, dislocation, alienation and isolation, which will lea d to processes of acculturation” (Bhugra, 2004, p. 129). Migrants go through many varied phases to accommodate themselves. 2) Literature review There has been migration from African and Asian countries, including the Middle East to non-English speaking European countries, for example, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland. A host of languages are spoken in these countries. A large number of immigrants have settled in English speaking Australia, Canada and the United States. These countries have become truly multicultural in character. Thanks to the magnanimous immigration policies of these states. In some countries, immigration has become a thorny issue as the newly arrived immigrants or refugees come from different cultural, religious, ethnic and language backgrounds, The nature of the society most immigrants and asylum seekers comes from and the nature of the societies they want to settle in may cause difficulties in social adjustment. It has been hypothesized by Bhugra (2005, p. 22) that individuals who migrate from predominantly socio-centric, or collectivistic societies into a society that is predominantly egocentric, or individualistic, are likely to have problems adjusting to the new culture, especially if the individuals themselves are socio-centric in in their own belief system. It is obvious that the preferred countries in the West are primarily individualistic societies whose cultural values and ideologies may be challenging to them. Bhugra adds that allocentric individuals who hail from a collectivistic society are very likely to face various types of stress if they are to migrate to individualistic societies and have to deal with idiocentric individuals. Immigrant families to Canada and the United States, for example, will have to confront many problems which will probably make things difficult for them to adapt to the host culture. This study is particularly interested in how migrants to Canada cope with migration, their cultural identity and English, the language of the host country, besides French. Canada has two language zones- Anglophone and Francophone. Immigrant families arrive in Canada to seek a better life for their future, very often fleeing poverty, strife, persecution and discrimination of all sorts. Those who do not experience such difficulties go in search of greener pastures. These are usually the professionals who are attracted by occupational and educational factors. Immigrants are coming to Canada in huge numbers, partly due to its perceived policy of multiculturalism. The immigration policy is viewed as economically beneficial. The major sticking point according to Hansen (2003) is the sense of belonging to Canada among the more recent immigrants compared to those who arrived in the late 60s, 70s and early 80s. In addition  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No3 September 2015 Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role English Ali  & Alam Arab World English Journal ISSN: 2229-9327 277 there are decreasing levels of earning and academic attainment. In an interview given by Randall Hansen, an authority on immigration issues, conducted by Loretta Ho and Harbi Natt, most immigrant children go on to attend public schools and this is helpful for integration and even assimilation into Canadian society. He believes that immigrants to Canada pursue jobs and university students acculturate very well (http;// studies/2013/02/qa-with-randall-hansen). In the same interview Hansen (2003) opines that multiculturalism in Canada is about retaining the identity of the new Canadians in contrast to USA which has become a melting pot or a potpourri of cultures. This may be inadvertently to give the false impression that while USA practices assimilation, Canada is multicultural. With regard to the issue of welfare programs vis-a-vis in Canada, Hansen (2003) is of the view that immigrants to Canada succeed due to the international quality of public schools there which most of the immigrant children attend. He believes that highly skilled immigrant professionals and entrepreneurs are not in need of income support. Health care has no non- positive effects. Hansen asserts that the country‟s immigration policy has br  ought about much benefit. The policy has attracted a skilled workforce with their families. Since most Canadians are not indigenous to Canada, there is a sense of reality that they are in general immigrants, the practical distinction being early and late immigrants. The citizens are happy and neighborhoods are not race-based. Language plays a crucial role in migration and acculturation. Immigrants who come from language backgrounds which are different from the dominant languages in the host country are likely to face a host of problems initially. This may even lead to loss of their heritage language over time. On the other hand, those who arrive from similar language backgrounds (varieties of the dominant language, included) may be able to adapt and settle in fairly quickly. This is the case with migrants from Anglophone Africa and former British colonies in Asia, for example, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, when they migrate to the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and the United States. According to Bhugra & Becker (2005), new immigrants felt a sense of cultural bereavement due to linguistic barriers, financial issues and religious beliefs. Language is a part of cultural identity, in addition to religion, dietary habits and leisure activities. Bhugra (2004) asserts that linguistic competence and economic stability are important factors in adapting to a new culture in the country they have come to resettle. To feel part of the new environment and different culture, there has to be some attempts to accommodate the leisure activities such as literature, music, movies and sports which may be dissimilar from the country of srcin. Immigrants from a minority culture, will inevitably have to interact with the majority culture. The minority culture may find the majority culture less intimidating and more inviting as the members of the minority group become linguistically fluent in the target language and socially competent in the majority culture‟s norms. With such skills, individuals would be better able to fit in and find suitable employment, Linguistic congruity and common cultural similarities may go a long way in providing social and emotional support.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No3 September 2015 Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role English Ali  & Alam Arab World English Journal ISSN: 2229-9327 278 Learning a second/foreign language by newly arrived immigrants involves issues of identity and exposure to the target language culture. The cultural, religious and ethnic identity of the new and older immigrants may be retained by membership of communities of practice whose three characteristics are mutual engagement which bind the learners as a social entity; joint enterprise in which teachers and learners attempt to understand what binds them as a community and shared repertoire of commonly used resources and practices, according to Wenger (as cited in Brown, 2014). Kramsch states that foreign language learning does have effect on the identities of second language learners in an L2 culture (as cited in Brown, 2014). The development of hybrid identities, where possible, may even be negotiated by the learners themselves. A language whether it is ones primary language or a second or third is related to the construction of our identity and acculturation. Immigrant communities have to confront different cultures and ideologies. Monocultural communities are few and multicultural ones are many. So, they have to traverse different cultures, but very often there is a dominant cult ure which has come to be largely recognized. For example, in the United Kingdom, although there are many different communities, it is the white English speaking culture which is the dominant one. To be considered British, the residents are expected to share or tolerate the values of the majority population. But countries which have embraced multiculturalism do face problems with non-majority communities. Language proficiency in the national language or the official language/s is one positive way to minimize possible doubts and misgivings. The second language has to be acquired for both intrinsic and integrative purposes. Success in second language acquisition is tied up with social integration which in turn may be expected to contribute to harmonious living in the country where people have gone to live, probably until their last years, or until such time they want to return to their countries of srcin when conditions are favourable. The dominant language or languages of the host country have to be successfully acquired for the mutual benefit of both new and old residents. Canada is a country which is avowedly multicultural. English and French are the two dominant languages. Many from erstwhile British colonies seek out the Anglophone provinces, while those from former French territories seek to settle in Francophone Canada. Culture acquisition of the dominant societies is inevitable and one cannot be completely detached from it. Brown (2014) states that there are four successive stages: 1) an initial period when the settlers experience excitement and euphoria in the new environment, 2) the phenomenon of culture shock when the things the new settler finds much different from his/her way of life and such estrangement and alienation may lead to anomie, 3) gradual adjustment to the new way of life of the host country, and 4) the last stage of accommodation of a new culture and identity as a citizen of the host country. Anomie, according to Lambert, may even motivate a person to acquire the target language and the new culture synonymously (as cited in Brown, 2014). Although culture is a sensitive issue as it deals with one‟s identity, the foreign culture cannot be divorced from their daily life. Attitudes towards others, especially those of the fellow citizens, and more so of the people whose language the immigrants need to survive and prosper in the new surroundings. Attitudes towards the second/foreign language, the speakers, their positive traits, their literature, culture, etc. are essential for harmonious continued living in the new country. Negative attitudes, being defensive or reluctant to learn a new language and refusal  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No3 September 2015 Cultural Approximation, Alienation and the Role English Ali  & Alam Arab World English Journal ISSN: 2229-9327 279 to deal with people of different cultural beliefs or ideologies are not helpful in learning the dominant language/s of the host country. Immigrant communities cannot afford to live in linguistic and cultural ghettoes. New arrivals to an English-speaking country have to come into contact with the varieties of the dominant language. In UK and USA, there is considerable variation in the different regions. This variation involves phonetic differences, besides grammatical, lexical and morphological ones. In Australia, a country with a lot of immigration history, there are such differences too. The new immigrants need to take the initiative to know the varieties which are not only standard varieties, but also actually those used by people from various backgrounds and regions. An investigation of Australian newspaper English has revealed expressions which are peculiar to the Aussies (Mohideen, 2013). Geetha (2015), a resident of Melbourne. has identified a number of typical Australian expressions: mate- a male friend; used by both men and women; sheila- a woman; a generic ter m to address a woman; I‟m crook  - an individual feeling unwell and may throw up; I was involved in a prang- involved in an accident involving vehicles; bring a plate- bring a cooked dish for the occasion; barbie- barbecue; snags- sausages; chock-chicken; mozzies- mosquitoes; a cuppa with bickie- a cup of tea with biscuits; brekkie-  breakfast; it‟s your shout- it‟s your treat at the pub; tradie - a handyman; sparkie- electrician; dinkum- a fair deal; No worries- a response to statements of problems, thankful expressions, etc. Next, let us look at some Canadian lingo which residents and new Canadians have to be familiar with to facilitate their social interaction: eh- don‟t you think, as in The weather today is glorious, eh? Canuck- a nickname for Canadian; hoser- an unsophisticated person, the Australian equivalent is „bogan.‟ Keener  - boot licker; lineup- queue; for sure- definitely; elastic- rubber band; serviette- paper napkin; sweat pants- track pants; to be on pogey- to be on welfare; to proctor an exam- to invigilate an exam Other Canadianisms, according to Okrent (2015), a linguist, include “toonie” - for a two dollar coin; “loonie” - for a one dollar coin; “a bunny hug” - for a hooded sweatshirt; “hydro” - for hydro-electric power, related to this is the hydro bill; Besides the above, Melchers & Shaw (2003) describe Canadian English and highlight some essential features. In terms of spelling, British spelling is more commonly used compared to American spelling with reference to  –  our vs  –  or and  –   re vs  –   er. When it involves the  –   ise and  –   ize, the American forms are preferred. When it comes to phonology, there are vacillations between British and American ways of pronunciation. The younger group of Canadians seem to have an inclination towards American variants according to the Survey of Canadian English undertaken in 1972. It is not an easy experience for immigrants and newer arrivals to integrate easily or quickly in their adopted countries. The language challenge is by no means something one may overcome in a short span of time satisfactorily. The people concerned have to cross the linguistic barriers for successful social cohesion and professional contribution in the society. Unsatisfactory proficiency in the target language may deprive the residents of a meaningful coexistence and citizenship to reap the maximum benefits of settlement in industrially and technologically advanced countries. This may help to reduce the sense of alienation and open the way to approximation of shared cultural attributes.
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