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Berklee Music History 1 Study Guide

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Study guitar for Berklee Music History 1
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  Medieval Sacred Music General Terms   Psalms:  song; book of psalms is a book of songs Cantillation:  chanting of sacred texts based on melodic formulas that reflected the phrase divisions of the text Rite: Mass: the most important service in the Roman Church Proper of the Mass: the texts for certain parts of the Mass that vary from day to day Ordinary of the Mass: the texts for other parts that do not change Office: a series of either services that since the early Middle Ages have been celebrated daily at specific times  Antiphon: a chant sung before and after psalms Responsories: lessons with musical responses Canticles: poetic passages from parts of the Bible other than the Book of Psalms Church Calendar:  kept track of religious events Liturgy:  sequence of events that happen at meeting Liturgical Dramas: dialogues and more elaborate plays in Latin Psalmody: the singing of psalms, was part of the Mass as well as Office Cantor: the leader of a choir, sings the opening words of the antiphon; the cantor sings the first half of the psalm or canticle verse, the choir completes the second half Polyphony: the art of voices singing together in independent parts Organum: two or more voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations according to given rules Sequence: a genre popular from the late ninth through the twelfth centuries  Ars Nova: (meaning New Art or New Method), has come to denote the new French musical style inaugurated by Vitry in the 1310s and continued until the 1370s Characteristics of Chant Responsorial: from response  Antiphonal: two groups or halves of the choir alternate Direct: without alternation Syllabic: chants in which almost every syllable has a single note Neumatic: chants in which syllables carry one to six notes or so - generally one neume  per syllable Melismatic: chants that feature many melismas Types of Chants Plainchant:  early European Unison song. The earliest notation we have of plainchant was A.D 800, but was most likely happening hundreds of years before that Chant Dialects:  the different regional repertories  Gregorian Chant:  the codification of liturgy and music under Roman leaders, helped by Frankish kings. Byzantine:  Ambrosian  Chant: the songs of a Milanes rite, named after St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan from 374 to 397 Old Roman Chant:  More ornate melodies based on the same principles as Gregorian chant. Music Notation/Terms:   Notation: a way to write down music Neumes:  the earliest notation signs (usually dots, splotches, or squiggles) that were placed above words to indicate the melodic gesture for each syllable. Diastematic Heighted Neumes: Neumes that are placed at varying heights on the staff to indicate the relative size as well as direction of the interval Echoi: Musica Mundana: the music of the universe, according to Boetheius  Musica Humana: human music Musica Instrumentalis: instrumental music Final: the main note in the mode and usually the last not in the melody Mode: each chant was assigned to a particular mode, which made it easier to learn and memorize chants  Authentic: the odd-numbered modes that typically cover a range from a step below to the final octave above it Plagal: each authentic mode is paired with a plagal mode that has the same final but is deeper in range, moving from a fourth (or sometimes a fifth) below the final to fifth or sixth above it. Recital Tone: a second characteristic note in addition to the final tone. While finals of corresponding plagal and authentic modes are the same, recital tones differ. Solmization: (ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la) syllables created by Guido of Arezzo to recognize pattern tones and semi tones. Hexachords: the interval pattern of six notes from  ut   to  la  with a semitone between mi and fa Mutation: changing hexachords, a note that was shared by both hexachords was begun as if in one hexachord a left as if in another. Recitation Formulas: simple melodic outlines that can be used with many different texts Intonation: a rising motive used only for the first verse Mediant: a cadence for the middle of each verse Termination: a finale cadence for each verse Lesser Dox-Ology: a formula of praise to the Trinity father Strophic: hymns consisting of several stanzas that are al sung to the same melody Psalmody: the singing of psalms, was part of the Mass as well as Office Jubilus: the final syllable of alleluia that is extended by an effusive melisma Drone: typical sustain the modal final, sometimes joined by the fifth above  Parallel Organum: two melodies singing in parallel motions, consisting of the  principle voice  (srcinal chant)   and the organal voice (the other chant moving a fifth below) Mixed Parallel and Oblique Organum: combines oblique motion, like a melody over a drone, with parallel motion  Aquitanian Polyphony: a new more ornate type of polyphony developed by French singers and composers in the early twelfth century Discant: occurs when both parts move at about the same rate, with one to three notes in the upper part for each note of the lower voice Florid Organum: refers to a texture in which the upper voice sings note groups of varying lengths above each note of the lower voice, which accordingly moves much more slowly than the upper Tenor: the lower voice that holds the principle melody Score Notation: the voices are written above the text, the top voice above the tenor, separated by a line Ligatures: combinations of note groups Longs: long notes Breves: short notes Rhythmic Modes: the six basic patterns, which were then referred to as modes Tempus: the basic time unit Duplum: Latin for double Triplum: Latin for triple Quadruplum: Latin for quadruple Clausula: the Latin word for a clause or phrase in a sentence Voice Exchange: where voices trade phrases Isorhythm: (meaning equal rhythms), in which the tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm Minims: (meaning least) division of the semibreve, formerly the smallest possible note value Mensuration Signs: symbols that are the ancestors of modern time signatures Talea: the repeating rhythmic unit Color: recurring segment of melody Hocket: two voices alternate in rapid succession, each resting while the other sings Contratenor: (meaning against the tenor) in the same range as the tenor, sometimes below it and sometimes above it Virelai: a popular French genre Formes Fixes: (fixed forms) text and music have particular patters of repetition that include a refrain , a phrase or section that repeats both words and music. Three forms include Virelai, Ballade, and  Rondeau Key Historical Figures Boethius: (ca. 480-524) the most revered music authority on music in the Middle Ages  Guido of Arezzo: (ca. 991-est.1033) a musical theorist of the medieval era. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation (staff notation) that replace neutmatic  notation Elias Salomo: Jacques de Liége: Johannes de Garlandia: Philippe de Vitry: (ca. 1291-1361) a French composer, poet, church canon, administrator for the duke of Bourbon and the king of France, and later Bishop of Meaux, is named by one writer as the inventor of a new art Guillaum de Machaut: (ca. 1300-1377) the most important composer and poet in 14th-century France. His music has come to typify the French  Ars Nova Medieval Secular Music   General Terms: Minnesinger: knightly poet musicians who flourished between the twelfth and 14th centuries and wrote in Middle High German Fin' Amors or Fine Amour: (meaning refined love ) idealized love through which the lover was himself refined. The object was a real woman, usually a man's wife, but she was adored from a distance, with discretion, respect, and humility Refrain: a recurring phrase or verse with music Troubadours: poet-composers in Southern France whose language was Occitan Trouvéres: poet-composers in Northern France whose language was Old French Bards: poet-singers in Celtic lands, who sang epics at banquets and other occasions Jongleurs: (from the same English root as Jugglers) were lower-class itinerant musicians who traveled alone or in groups, earning precarious living by performing tricks, telling stories, or singing and playing instruments Mistrel: (from the Latin word servant ) used for more specialized musicians, many of whom were employed by the court or city for at least part of the year Chansonniers: (songbooks) songs preserved in manuscript anthologies Refrain: a recurring phrase or verse with music Rondeau: a dance song with a refrain in two phrases Bar Form: the most common melodic form AAB Haut: French for high Bas: French for low Ballata: (meaning to dance ) srcinally meant song to accompany dancing, became popular later than the madrigal and caccia (14th Century) Madrigal: a song for two or three voices without instrumental accompaniment Treble: the principle line, supported by a slow-moving tenor without text Rota: (similar to Rondellus) a perpetual canon or round at the unison
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