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Bench Marking 1

Useful Benchmarking Techniques in Computer
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  Useful Benchmarking Techniques in Computer Introduction: Over the years, there has been a tremendous development in benchmarking techniques, in terms of both benchmarking practices and method, which are widely used in different organization to achieve different goals in the developing countries. Benchmarking:  Benchmarking is simply the comparison of one organization's practices and  performance against those of others. It seeks to identify standards, or best  practices, to apply in measuring and improving performance. „Benchmarking‟ is a term that is now widely used within the quality arena. Benchmarking involves comparing a set of products or services against the best that can be found within the relevant industry sector. Benchmarking at its best is used as a tool to help our business evaluate opportunities for improvement. There are many benefits of benchmarking, the top reasons include:    Identify and priorities specific areas of opportunity    Understand your customers needs better    Identifying your strengths and weaknesses    Set goals and performance expectations    Monitor your performance and effectively manage change    Understand your competitors to become more competitive.  Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance (see also Inglis and McConachie, Danaher, Luck and Jones, this issue) is a process oriented to guaranteeing that the quality of a product or a service meets some predetermined standard. Quality assurance makes no assumptions about the quality of competing products or services. In practice, however, quality assurance standards would be expected to reflect norms for the relevant industry. The process of quality assurance therefore compares the quality of a product or service with a minimum standard set either by the producer or provider or by some external government or industry standards authority. By rights, this standard should bear some relationship to best practice, but this is not a necessary condition. The aim in quality assurance is to ensure that a product or service is fit for the market. Quality Improvement: Quality Improvement (see also Cummings, Phillips, Tilbrook and Lowe, this issue) is concerned with raising the quality of a product or service. The type of comparison that is made when engaged in quality improvement is between the current standard of a product or service and the standard being aimed for. Quality improvement is concerned with comparing the quality of what is about to be  produced with the quality of what has been produced in the past. Quality improvement is therefore primarily concerned with self rather than with others. Processes focused on quality improvement are also focused more on specific aspects of an organizational unit‟s performance than on overall performance. It is usually the case that constraints dictate that efforts at improvement need to be targeted at areas of greatest need.  Purpose: As computer architecture advanced, it became more difficult to compare the  performance of various computer systems simply by looking at their specifications. Therefore, tests were developed that allowed comparison of different architectures. For example, Pentium 4  processors generally operate at a higher clock frequency than XP  processors, which does not necessarily translate to more computational  power. A slower processor, with regard to clock frequency, can perform as well as a processor operating at a higher frequency. Benchmarks are designed to mimic a  particular type of workload on a component or system. Synthetic benchmarks do this by specially created programs that impose the workload on the component. Application benchmarks run real-world programs on the system. While application  benchmarks usually give a much better measure of real-world performance on a given system, synthetic benchmarks are useful for testing individual components, like a hard disk or networking device. CPUs that have many execution units  —   such as a superscalar CPU, a VLIW CPU, or a reconfigurable computing CPU  —   typically have slower clock rates than a sequential CPU with one or two execution units when built from transistors that are just as fast. Nevertheless, CPUs with many execution units often complete real-world and benchmark tasks in less time than the supposedly faster high-clock-rate CPU. Given the large number of benchmarks available, a manufacturer can usually find at least one benchmark that shows its system will outperform another system; the other systems can be shown to excel with a different benchmark. Manufacturers commonly report only those benchmarks (or aspects of  benchmarks) that show their products in the best light. They also have been known to mis-represent the significance of benchmarks, again to show their products in the best possible light. Taken together, these practices are called bench-marketing. Ideally benchmarks should only substitute for real applications if the application is unavailable, or too difficult or costly to port to a specific processor or computer system. If performance is critical, the only benchmark that matters is the target environment's application suite.  Challenges: Benchmarking is not easy and often involves several iterative rounds in order to arrive at predictable, useful conclusions. Interpretation of benchmarking data is also extraordinarily difficult. Here is a partial list of common challenges:    Vendors tend to tune their products specifically for industry-standard  benchmarks. Norton SysInfo (SI) is particularly easy to tune for, since it mainly biased toward the speed of multiple operations. Use extreme caution in interpreting such results.    Some vendors have been accused of cheating at benchmarks  —   doing things that give much higher benchmark numbers, but make things worse on the actual likely workload. [1]      Many benchmarks focus entirely on the speed of  computational  performance, neglecting other important features of a computer system Types of benchmarks: 1.   Real program o   Word processing software o   Tool software of CAD o   User's application software 2.   Component Benchmark o   Core routine consists of a relatively small and specific piece of code. o   Measure performance of a computer's basic components o   May be used for automatic detection of computer's hardware  parameters like number of registers, cache size, memory latency, etc.
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