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ASPECTOS DA SUSTENTABILIDADE AMBIENTAL DA PRODUÇÃO DE ETANOL NO BRASIL: TECNOLOGIAS E PRÁTICAS

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O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma análise do tipo SWOT para avaliar os aspectos de sustentabilidade ambiental da produção do etanol no Brasil. A análise SWOT é utilizada freqüentemente para informar aos decisores os fatores determinantes ou críticos de uma determinada situação em estudo. Tem como objetivo reduzir incertezas e auxiliar na formulação de estratégias explicitando os fatores que poderão influenciar o sucesso de um projeto. São verificados os impactos conhecidos em sete fatores ambientais, considerados os mais críticos para a expansão da cultura de cana no país: qualidade do ar, recursos hídricos, biodiversidade, ocupação do solo, preservação do solo, uso de defensivos agrícolas, uso de fertilizantes agrícolas. Conclui-se que tem havido progressos na direção de melhorar os aspectos de sustentabilidade, mas ainda existem diversas oportunidades para melhorias, especialmente relacionadas com novas práticas agrícolas e novas tecnologias que minimizem o uso de recursos hídricos e efluentes.
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