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Application of Geographical Information Systems in Urban Land Use Planning in Malaysia

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The 4 th Taipei International Conference on Digital Earth, Taiwan. 25-26 May 2006. Applications of Geographic Information Systems in Urban Land Use Planning in Malaysia Narimah Samat Geography Section, School of Humanities Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, MALAYSIA Abstract Over the past forty years Geographic Infonnation Systems (GIS) have been used in many planning applications ranging from daily administrative operations to strategic planning functions such as eval
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  The4 th TaipeiInternationalConferenceonDigitalEarth,Taiwan.25-26May2006. Applications of Geographic Information Systemsin UrbanLand UsePlanninginMalaysia Narimah Samat GeographySection,School of HumanitiesUniversitiSainsMalaysia,11800Penang,MALAYSIA Abstract Over thepast forty years Geographic Infonnation Systems(GIS)have beenused in manyplanning applicationsrangingfromdailyadministrativeoperationstostrategic planning functions suchas evaluatingsocio-economic data inlanduseallocationtasks. Thistechnologyhas variousanalyticalfunctions thatcanbe usedindealing with spatial problemssuchas urban planningandmanagement issues. It isusefulinassistingplanners,decision makersandthecommunityto efficiently respondto challenges, plan successfulfuture and improveservicedelivery. AlthoughGIS has become a common planning toolin many western developed nations,itsapplicationin manydevelopingnations isstilllimited. This paper highlightstheapplications of GISin urban landuse planning inMalaysia. It willfocus on GIS applicationsbylocal government authorities;evaluate the role of localuniversities such asUniversiti SainsMalaysia inconductingresearch onGIS applications; and discussthefuturedirection of GISapplicationsinlanduse planning inMalaysia. Keywords: GeographicInfonnation Systems; LandUse Planning; Malaysia 1. Introduction Urbanlanduseisadynamicphenomenon,changingwithbothacrossspaceandtime.Comprehensiveplanningisessentialinordertoensurethatnewurbandevelopmentdoesnotproducenegativeimpact on thesociety,economyandenvironment of aregionexperiencingurbanlandusechanges(Kivell,1993;DevasandRakodi,1993).Atpresenturbanplannersandcitymanagersindevelopingnationsfacerapidurbanizationresultedfrommigrationornaturalpopulationgrowth(Choguill,1994).In1950,forexample,urbanpopulationindevelopingnationswaslessthat300million. By 1985,however,ithadincreasedto 1.1 billion.Furtnermore,futureprojectionsuggestedthatpeoplelivinginmajorurbancenters of developingnationswillexceed4millionbythe year 2025(UNCHS,1996).Thisdrasticincrease of urbanpopulationwillcreatepressuretodevelopland,duetoahighdemandforresidentialdwellingsandrelatedservices(Kivell,1993,Choguill,1994).1  2.Urbanization in Malaysia Malaysia,forexample,hasexperiencedmoderateurbangrowthwhencomparedwithnationssuchasArgentinaorBrazil(refertoTable1).Malaysia'surbanpopulationin1975was37.6% of hertotalpopulation of 12.3million.Bytheyear2000,Malaysia'spopulationhadincreasedto22.3millionandmorethan57% of thispopulationlivedinurbanarea(Salleh,2000).AlthoughthisfigureislessalarmingwhencomparedwithurbangrowthexperienceinArgentinaorMexico,currentplanningprojectionsuggestedthatbytheyear2020Malaysia'spopulationwillincreaseto40.6million,with70% of thispopulationlivinginurbanareas(Department of Statistics,Malaysia2000).Suchanincrease in urbanpopulationwillresult,overtime,inatransformation of thephysicalappearance of manycities in Malaysia(Ghazali,1999).TableI:Urbanizationtrends,sizeandgrowth of urbanareas1975-2025 of selecteddevelopingnations.Country 1975 20002025Total in %UrbanTotal in %UrbanTotal in %UrbanThousandsDwellersThousandsDwellersThousandsDwellers(000)(000)(000)Argentina2102980.733276289.944308393.39Brazil6606561.65141979 81.21 20479188.94Indonesia2625919.368581940.3416739360.74Malaysia461637.651282057.492294272.65Mexico3694862.767958077.7] ]] 722285.82Philippines]529435.564400559.0]7762274.26SouthAfrica]231447.972455053.]24867368.60Thailand624415.101355521.902875660.74(Source:UNCHS,1996).Inordertocontrolormanageurbandevelopment,thefocuswasgivenonsupportingordirectingurbangrowthtowardexistingconurbationsespecially in KualaLumpur,GeorgetownandJohorBahru,whichhavethecapacityandpotentialtocompeteinternationally(JPBD,2006).Figure1showsmajorurbancenterswithpopulationexceeding10,000peopleinPeninsularMalaysia.Thisfigureshowsmajorurbancentersarelocatedalongmajortransportnetworksespecially in thewestcoast of PeninsularMalaysia.Thispattern of urbanizationwasresultedfromMalaysiangovernmentpolicy of industrializationwhichhascreatedasignificantincrease of 2  urbanpopulationespecially in Penang,SelangorandlohorState(Morshidiet aI., 1999). stRAITS OF.AML4CC:'1 _. -_ . Expressway Prin,:ipi\1 Highv.i\:Y -----. Railv.'ay SOUTHCH1NASEA P ,k,, NllrnlJi Fig 1: MajorurbanareasinMalaysia,townshownincapitallettersaretownswithpopulationexceeding10,000people.(Source:Ghazali,1999).Table2showsurbanizationlevel by statefrom1970to2000.ApartfromtheFederalTerritory(KualaLumpurandLabuan),PenangStateandSelangor,forexample,becomethemosturbanizedstatewithanurbanizationlevelexceeding80%(Department of Statistics,Malaysia,2000).Thisphenomenon is duetothemigration of youngpeoplefromruraltoindustrialurbanareas(Goh,1990;Salleh,2000). 3  - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - Table 2: UrbanizationLevelbyState,1970,1980,1991, 1995 and2000. UrbanizationLevelState 1970 19801990 1995 2000 Johor26.335.248.051.856.4Kedah12.614.433.136.942.1Kelantan 14.1 28.133.735.739.4Melaka 25.1 23.439.444.049.8NegeriSembilan21.632.642.544.747.6Pahang19.0 26.1 30.631.933.7Perak27.532.254.360.567.8Pedis - 8.926.730.435.3PulauPinang51.047.575.380.6 86.1 Sabah16.919.932.835.238.2Sarawak15.518.038.043.450.5Selangor39.534.275.082.689.4Terengganu27.042.944.6 45.1 45.7FederalTerritory100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00(KualaLumpur)Source:Department of Statistics,Malaysia(1996;2000).Significantincrease of urbanpopulationistheresultfromMalaysian'sgovernmentindustrializationpolicythatstartedsince1970s.Fig2showsurbanizationlevelinPeninsularMalaysiasince1970to2000.InPenangStateandSelangor,forexample,urbanpopulationhasincreasedfrom 51 %to86%and40%to89%respectivelybetween1970and2000.PenangStatehasbecomeagrowthcentre of theNorthernRegionandleaderinmanufacturingactivities in Malaysia.Urbanpopulationgrowthhasresultedinanincreasedpressureonlandforhousingandrelatedservices(DevasandRakodi,1993).In2001,forexample,built-upareawasapproximately3.3%or437,100hectares of thetotalarea of PeninsularMalaysia.However,thisbuilt-upareaisexpectedtoincreaseto5.8%or768,600hectaresinordertocaterforurbanpopulationexpansion by 2020(MohdAtan,2005).Althoughthisvalueprobablyseemstobesmall,changesinlandusecangeneratelocal,regionalorglobalimpactonbiodiversity,landscapeorlivingenvironment.Thus,LocalandFederalAuthoritiesatalocalorregionallevelneed to becarefullyplanandmonitorsuchgrowth. 4
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