An Automated Biometric Attendance Management System with Dual Authentication Mechanism Based on Bluetooth and NFC Technologies

An Automated Biometric Attendance Management System with Dual Authentication Mechanism Based on Bluetooth and NFC Technologies
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  Available Online at  International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing   A Monthly Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology ISSN 2320–088X    IJCSMC, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, March 2013, pg.18 – 25 RESEARCH ARTICLE © 2013, IJCSMC All Rights Reserved  18 An Automated Biometric Attendance ManagementSystem with Dual Authentication Mechanism Basedon Bluetooth and NFC Technologies Samuel King Opoku Computer Science Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Ghana  Abstract— Attendance Management System (AMS) is the easiest way to keep track of attendance for community organisations for day-to-day monitoring of attendance and manpower analysis. AMS comes in four types. These are Manual, Biometric, Card-based or E-Commerce systems. This paper presents theimplementation of an AMS that is based on Bluetooth and NFC technologies in a multi-user environment. Ituses fingerprint and the Bluetooth address of the NFC-enabled phone of the user to authenticate the identity of the user. A Java based desktop application receives the NFC tag IDs, other information associated with the mobile phone and the user and submits them to an analyser for the interpretation of the user’s behaviour. Key Terms: - Attendance Management System, Authentication, Biometric, Bluetooth, Mobile Phone, NFC. I.   I NTRODUCTION   Attendance Management System (AMS) is the easiest way to keep track of attendance for communityorganizations such as school clubs, scouting units, church groups, business organisations and volunteer groups.AMS is useful in terms of manpower analysis, day-to-day monitoring of attendance, maintaining statutoryregisters, monitoring leave records, calculation of overtime and transferring information to the payroll system[1]. AMS can be grouped into four categories, namely, Manual System, Biometric System, Card-based Systemand E-Commerce SystemManual System: This system makes use of a log book. Users arrive at a terminal where the book is placed.They write their names, the time of arrival and then sign against their names. Some organisations provide clock for arrivals to use at the terminal. This system is limited by lack of user authentication. Users may write wrongtime and the log book may even be stolen or destroyed.Biometric System: This system recognises a person by his body parts such as face, voice, iris and fingerprint([2], [3]) linking that to an externally established identity. The common type is the use of fingerprints [4].Fingerprint system can either be minutiae-based, image-based or textured-base systems ([4]-[7]). In theminutiae-based, ridge endings and ridge bifurcations are extracted forming the feature vector to be used foridentification. This system has small size but it requires large processing power for image denoising andenhancement ([2], [4]). The image-based system uses raw pixel intensity information in its operation [2]. It usesoptical matching and correlation-based matching [3]. Though this system is prevalent among the recognitionsystems, it is however, affected by brightness variation, image quality variation, scars and global distortions inthe image [5]. It also requires much storage ([2], [7]). The textured-based system matches features of fingerprintextracted in a transform domain ([2], [6]), generating sequence distribution [2]. This system has smaller size of feature vector and it does not need pre-processing. Hence reduces computational overload and saves time.  Samuel King Opoku,   International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing Vol.2 Issue. 3, March- 2013, pg. 18-25   © 2013, IJCSMC All Rights Reserved  19 Card-based System: Cards are inserted into a machine which records the exact time when the user has arrived.Paper cards have eventually been replaced by sturdier cards that are sized just like the bank card which can alsobe used for time keeping. An issue with the attendance card is that some workers will ask co-workers to time-infor them. Some have attempted to remedy this dilemma through the use of signature logs that are attached nextto the attendance recorder [2].E-Commerce System: This is a performance based attendance keeping system. This is increasingly utilized toensure not only users’ attendance but also their productivity and efficiency as well. This system captures userlogs into the organisational website alongside other activities such as mouse clicks and keyboard taps. Thissystem is in the experimental phase [2]This paper presents the implementation of an AMS in a multi-user environment. It uses fingerprint andBluetooth address of the NFC-enabled phone to authenticate users. The NFC-enabled mobile device runs a JavaMicro Edition (Java ME) application that reads the IDs of the NFC tags designed as Entry tag or Exit tag. Themobile device uses Bluetooth to send the ID of the tag and the time on the mobile phone to a terminal which is acomputer. A Java based desktop application on the terminal receives the NFC tag IDs and other informationassociated with the mobile phone. It then updates the user’s information stored in the database and submits theuser’s information including the time of the mobile phone, the time of the terminal to the analyser for theinterpretation of the user’s behaviour based on their previous conducts.Java is a platform that supports multi-threading applications enabling parallel task processing ([8], [9]) andthus it is suitable for developing applications in a multi-user environment. Among the platforms of Java are JavaStandard Edition (Java SE) and Java Micro Edition (Java ME). Java SE is used to implement desktopapplications which may involve Graphical User Interface (GUI). Java ME is used for implementing mobiledevice applications [9]. The compatibility of Java ME and Java SE enables the development of a backend serverto assist the limited processing power of mobile devices especially mobile phones [10]. The Bluecove API isintegrated into Java SE for Bluetooth communication between the backend server and the mobile deviceswhereas the Bluetooth API called Java Specification Request (JSR) 82 is integrated into Java ME so that mobiledevices can communicate with other devices through Bluetooth [11]. Java ME application for mobile phone isdeveloped using MIDlet with the help of Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) supported byMobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) profile [11].Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless communication technology which is implemented onpersonal devices such as smart phones, tablets and other consumer electronic devices requiring low processingpower ([11], [12]). Three modes of communication are defined by NFC forum, namely, Read/Write mode, TagEmulation and Peer-to-peer [11]. In read/write mode, NFC phone can read or write to a tag as in smart poster. Intag emulation mode, NFC phone acts like a smart card. An example is using mobile phone as an electronicwallet. These modes are supported by Contactless Communication API (JSR 257) ([13], [14]). The third modeis peer-to-peer mode in which link level communication is established between two NFC phones. An example isthe exchange of business cards. An extension of Contactless Communication API supports peer-to-peercommunication between NFC devices ([11], [13]). The figure below demonstrates how NFC can operate inthree modes with each mode supported by a protocol stack on the device. Fig. 1 NFC Modes of Operation Supported by Device Host’s Protocol Stack (Source [16]) One major drawback of NFC communication is associated with its security and privacy protection ([14], [15]).Though with the Security and Trust Service API (JSR 177), the read and write operations can be done throughApplication Program Data Unit (APDU) communication which provides some level of security [11], using NFCdevices will affect personal privacy by tractability. Cell phone affected by malware can collect all theinformation stored in the cell phone or the information typed by the keyboard and can send it back to an attacker  Samuel King Opoku,   International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing Vol.2 Issue. 3, March- 2013, pg. 18-25   © 2013, IJCSMC All Rights Reserved   20 [15]. Pre-commercial Software Development Kits (SDK’s) widely used for NFC applications are Nokia 6131SDK 1.1 and Series 40 Nokia 6212 SDK [17].Bluetooth communication protocol has client-server architecture. The client initiates the connection and theserver accepts the connection [18]. The easy way to set up a Bluetooth communication channel between devicesis through Radio Frequency COMMunication (RFCOMM) protocol in which a Universally Unique Identifier(UUID) is provided to characterise the service offered [19]. A sustained link is obtained by allowingbidirectional transmission before shutting down the link [18]. The other protocols provided by Bluetoothspecifications are Object Exchange (OBEX), which supports file transfer and Logical Link Control Protocol(L2CAP), which supports peer-to-peer communication ([18], [19]). Bluetooth is limited by excessive powerconsumption ([12], [20]). The power level of the energy source (or the battery) affects the operations of themobile device when the software development kit used for developing the application does not suite thehandheld device ([21], [22]).II.   S YSTEM A RCHITECTURE AND D ESIGN   This section describes the various architectures of AMS that were implemented in this work. Thearchitectures include communication design, user-system interactions and the user behaviour prediction design.  A.   Communications Architecture The system employs heterogeneous communication protocols in its operations. Within the internal structuresof the system in which the implementation is hidden from the user, Transmission Control Protocol / InternetProtocol (TCP/IP) is used. This ensures that data transmitted within the system is reliably received.Communication between phones and the multi-threaded terminal is by Bluetooth. Between the tags and thephones, NFC is employed. The fingerprint reader is directly connected to the terminal through a Universal SerialBus (USB) cable. The figure below illustrates communication architecture between the various components of the system. Fig. 2 Communication Architecture of the System  B.   User-System Interactions The internal components of the system interact with the user and the NFC tags through the NFC-enabledphone. The figure below shows how the various components of the system including the user interact.  Samuel King Opoku,   International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing Vol.2 Issue. 3, March- 2013, pg. 18-25   © 2013, IJCSMC All Rights Reserved   21 Fig. 3 User’s Interaction with the System The interaction processes labelled 1 to 22 are described below:1.   Initiate Bluetooth connection with the terminal2.   Phone’s Bluetooth address and time are sent to the terminal3.   Phone’s Bluetooth address, phone’s time and the terminal’s time are sent to the server4.   Server queries database for user’s particulars including fingerprint information and current attitude5.   User’s information retrieved and sent back to the server6.   User’s fingerprint information is sent to the terminal whilst other information remains on the server. If the phone is unknown, by virtue of its Bluetooth address, message is also delivered to the terminal7.   Terminal indicates to the user via the phone to use the fingerprint reader for biometric authentication orcloses the system for this user if the Bluetooth address is unknown8.   User initiates biometric fingerprint authentication.9.   Fingerprint data captured is transferred to the terminal10.   Terminal performs fingerprint authentication process by comparing the data captured to the one sent bythe server. If user is correctly authenticated, then move to next process otherwise close the system forthis user11.   User is prompted to touch one of the tags (either Entry tag upon arrival or Exit tag when leaving thepremises of the organisation)12.   Tag ID is sent to the terminal13.   The label associated with the tag ID is sent to the server14.   Submits user’s particulars, phone’s Bluetooth address, phone’s time, terminal’s time and the label of the tag touched to the Analyser15.   Apply Behaviour prediction algorithm to determine the current behaviour of the user16.   Update user’s behaviour in the database17.   Report unacceptable behaviour to the Administrator18.   Sends user’s feedback to the terminal19.   Sends feedback to the user as acceptable or unacceptable  20.   If feedback is unacceptable , prompt the user to provide reason or comment. However, if feedback isacceptable, open doors for the user. Terminal disconnects Bluetooth for that user and ends the process.21.   Sends reason to the Server22.   Update database with the reason or comment and ends the whole process.Users submit permission request through the internet. The request may be to leave earlier or to arrive late.The administrator provides response to the user. If permission is granted, the administrator updates theparticulars of the user which is used by the analyser during its operations. Administrator’s ability to update thedatabase can be done at any time  Samuel King Opoku,   International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing Vol.2 Issue. 3, March- 2013, pg. 18-25   © 2013, IJCSMC All Rights Reserved   22 C.    Behaviour Prediction Design The prediction design is divided into three steps with each step having its own algorithm. The various stepsare described below: •   Step 1 : This step determines whether the user works with the correct time. If users are allowed to uselate time, they will arrive late. Similarly, if they are allowed to use fast time, they will leave the placeearly. The algorithm employed is described below:If (absolute value (phone’s time – terminal’s time) ≤ 5) thenThe phone’s time is acceptable //system allows less than five minute variationElseThe phone’s time is wrongIf (number of warnings issued regarding phone time > 2) then //applicant’s act is deliberateReport to administratorInform the user that his conduct has been reported to the administratorElseInform user to update his/her phone timeUpdate database regarding number of warnings issuedEnd if End if  •   Step 2 : When the user arrives late or leaves earlier. The algorithm used is described below:If (tag touched is Entry and terminal time > (getOrganisationalArrivalTime() + 5)) then //user is lateIf (user sought permission) thenReport arrival time and permission to administratorNo apprehensive action is requiredElseReport lateness to the administratorUser provides commentUpdate database with the comment to reflect user’s punctuality statusGoto Step 3End if Else if (tag touched is Exit and terminal time < (getOrganisationalExitTime() - 5)) then //user leaves earlierIf (user sought permission) thenReport exit time and permission to administratorNo apprehensive action is requiredElseReport early leave to the administratorUser provides commentUpdate database with the comment to reflect user’s punctuality statusGoto Step 3End if End if  •   Step 3 : When a user’s behaviour is analysed, the following algorithm is used to determine whether theuser has to continue his or her activities with the organisation or be punished by the administratorIf (number of warnings issued within a month > 2) then //user’s behaviour is unacceptableReport to the administrator to punish the userInform user that his/her unacceptable behaviour has been reported for punishmentElseInform user the number of times s/he arrived late or left on unusual timeUpdate database to reflect the current number of warnings issued.End if 
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