A Comparison of Student Health Knowledge in Michigan and Selected New York State Schools

The College at Brockport: State University of New York Digital Health Science Master's Theses Department of Health Science 1986 A Comparison of Student Health Knowledge in Michigan and
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The College at Brockport: State University of New York Digital Health Science Master's Theses Department of Health Science 1986 A Comparison of Student Health Knowledge in Michigan and Selected New York State Schools G. Greg Wojtowicz The College at Brockport, Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research Commons Repository Citation Wojtowicz, G. Greg, A Comparison of Student Health Knowledge in Michigan and Selected New York State Schools (1986). Health Science Master's Theses This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Department of Health Science at Digital It has been accepted for inclusion in Health Science Master's Theses by an authorized administrator of Digital For more information, please contact A Comparison of Student Health Knowledge in t-licidgan and Selected New York State Schools by G. Greg Wojtowicz A Thesis Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degr~~ of MASTER OF SCIENCE I~ EDUCATION.,(HEALTH EDUCATION) \ STAT~ U~IVERSITY OF NCW YORK, COLLEGE AT BROCKPORT 1 y 0 b ~=-~=-~==~~==~===~==~11= To the Resijent Instructional Staff: The member~ of the Committee selected to examine the thesis of G. Greg Wojtowicz, find it satisfactory and recommend it he accepted. The fuad visor / iii DEDICATION ail d' now ± t be gins all is done, save what shall have no end. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This investigator wishes to express his deepest appreciation to Dr. William H. Zimmerli for his guidance, counsel and motivational input. The completion of this research project would have been i~possible without the benefit of his expertise. This investiga~or wishes to expre~s a word of thanks to Dr. Andrew Brown for his advice and assistance. This inv~stigator w~shes to express his sincere appreciation to Stephanie Pryor-Yahn fo~ her support, assistance and unselfish devotion of personal time throughout this study. II 'I II.I v I TABLE OF CONTENTS I DEDICA1.,ION ACKNOWLEDGNENTS LIST OF TABLES ~ vii LIST OF GRAPliS ix CHAPTER iii I. INTRODUCTION... 1 Statement of the Problem... Hypotheses... 5 S i g n i f i c a.n c e o f t h e S t u d y 5 Definition of Terms... 7 Deliminations of the Study... 8 Limitations... 9 Basic Assumptions of the Study... 9 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Health Knowledge Health Knowledge and Related Variables. 12 Measuring Health Knowl~dge Health Knowledge & Ed c~tional Programs 14, III. DESIGN AND NETHODOLOGY Int rod uct ion Selection of Subjects Measuring Instrument Procedure Testing Statistical Analysis IV. RESULTS Section One A Calculation of Power Section Two An Analysis of Variance Section Three Tukey' s HSD v. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 55 VI. SUMMARY 58 iv II I! I VII. CONCLUSIONS, THeORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Theoretical Assumptions... 63 vi -~-- Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A. Correspondence Michigan Department Churchville-Chili Hi! ton ~ Spencerport... of Education B. Health Topic Area Attainment Rate c. Essential Objective Summary Michigan _Educational Assessment Program Test for Health Education Grades Four, S e v e n a n d T e n.., D. Cronbach Klpha Re)iability Coefficients. Grade Fou.r... Grade Seven Grade Ten E. Statistical Compu~ations AHSTRACT I! ~ I! II I vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Distribution. ~f Objective \~,tt.ainment Ratt:!o by Topic Area and Grade... 2H J+...o 8' 5 N.i c.lt.i..ff a.rt ;l{'.e..a:: lc h To: rri c. Nr-ea.- A t..t.a Ln.nl e.n t Rat e s by Grade N.e.w Yox~ Sta:t:: e~ He.atl.t.ra. To-p.i..c.. A;r,e.a. Att ai nm~n 1:: R'a.,t e.s bs Grade N.e::.w. io.i.k Stat,e-,..'1i.c... b.j. g.a.n S.t.u.de.,p,t..He&LtJl. ]opic Attainment Rates Grade Four 36 s. New York State~~ichigan Student Health Topic Att:~i.nment Rates Grade Seven - -; New York State-Michigan Student Health Topic Attainment Rates Grade Ten Analysis of Variance Between Groups ( 4th Grade New York State and 4th Grad~ M±chigdn Anal.ys.Ls- of, \f.ari&n.ce ll'.t~-le.en. Gr.o.up..s ( 7th; Gr'ad e Ne'W York State arrd /t'h Grade Michigan Analysis of Variance Between Groups (loth Grade New York State and loth Grade Mi~higan Omega Square (wt) Strensth of Association Between Treatment HTAR Anova Comparisons of Mean Data From New York State and Hichigan Tukey's Post Hoc Comparisons of New York State and Michigan Data, 46 ' 13. Tukey's ltsd Ne,w Yor-k St.a.te and- Michi.gan H'fAR M-eans PaJ.r Wise Comparisons Grade- Four ComparisOn of Ne~ York State-Michigan Pair. Wis-e M~an Diff' erences Grade Four Tukey's HSD New York State and Michigan HTAR Means Pair Wise Comparisons Grade Seven 50 16. Co.. mparison of New York State-Hichigan Pair Wise Mean Differences Grade Seven 1 7 o T u key's H S D New York State and t-ti chi g an H'f A R Heans Pair \Vise Comparisons Grade Ten o o o 18. Comparisons of Ne~ York Sta~e-Michigan Pair ~vise Nean Differences Grade Ten. o. o o 19. Average Ne~ York State and Michigan iltar Grades Fo~u.r::., S,even and. Te,n o. ' o.o. o o o. o o Sa t i s E a c t o r y N,e w Yo r k S t a t e an. d Hi c h i g an Student litar......,~ o ix LIST OF GRAPHS ' 'GRAPH 1. a Sampling Distributions Specified in the Null and Alternate Hypothese Calculation of Power New York S.t:a t-e; and Michigan G'rade Four.~ b Sampling Distributions Specified in the Null and Alternate Hypothese Calculation of Power New York State and Hichigan Grade Seven 41 c Sampling Distributions Specified in the Nul~ and Alternate Hypothese Calculation of Power New York State and Michigan Grade Ten 42 1 CHAPTER t l01ttwduc1\ion Historically, health educators ha~e been called upon to design and imp,lement,nev m~thods of instr,uctioo. that would e ff ectively fa'cilitatre Che assimilation of. n~w information. Whil e the body.of contemporary heall!h related knowledge is growing at an tin precede Q.ted rat~., e.d ucq t io nal prog tra.ms can no't: t.ea~h. a.. ll the.r.e is t;,o learn nor can art in~ividual be expected to learn all there is to know. Recently however, The School Health Education Evaluation study (SHEE) l has shown that program evaluatiqn can be a valuable tool in establishmen~ of educational pdior1ties dfre :ted at irit'proving the effective'1tl'rs df itls tr1j:_$tion vatiables. This study ~ill concentrat& on the as&essment o~ existing ~ealth knowledge in order to shgd l!~ht on its importance as an educational variable and its possible function as a mediator of wellness behaviocs. The SHEE study found tha\: health education programs are effective aod work best where there is attention to the buildin.g of fo.undations of basic knowledge. 2 l V.B. Connell, L.K. Olsen, R.R. TuFner and R. Simon, School Health Education Eyaluation, Final Report , Cambridge, Mass., Abt Associates, Inc., L.w...Gre~n, T. Cook., M.E. Doster, S.w. 12.ors, R. Hambleton., A. Smith and H.J. Walberg Thoughts From T-he School H-ealth E ducation Evaluation Advisory Panel , Journal of School Health, October, 1985, Volume 55, Number 8, p 2 One important ou~come of the study was to indicate the need to st'ring'ently select' topics that provide a lean core of s.ubject matter that all students..can master. 3 Hastery of fundamental bealt~ k~dwledge allows an individual to take order to achieve a le'vel of wellness. Basic knowledge also helps.one to prote-ct one se.lf from h.ealth hazard's and ptoblectns. Ef.fec:-ei-'.he h e alth. ed.uca.t-ion pr ograms.. a r'e.. b:as-ic to acquiring s:uch knowledge. The SHEE findings supported tnese.cont.entions. wh.en it reported statistically significant gains in student knowledge accompanied by s~udent reports of he~~thier attitudes, improved dec~s~on-making skills and a pos'it.ive. te.duction in the num.b'e.r of stud-e.nts who~ reported methodoolog.i'cal implications of t.he SllEE s-tudy stemmed from the c iscovery of the p'ositive impact -of time-on-t ask activitie~ with basi~ knowledge as a philosbp~ical base. ~he study concluded tha~ th.e more time spent on specifically selected topics, the more effectively these topics were learned. 3 T D C ;~ k and H J, W a 1 b e r g, h Me t hod o 1 o g i c a 1 and Sub s.t antive Significanc~', Jou r-nal o f' School Hea;t-th, October, 1985, Volume 55, Number 8, p D.B. Connell, R.R. Turner and E.F. Mason, Summary of Findings 'Of the S.chool Hea'lth Education Evaluation, Health Promotion Effectiveness, Implementation, and Costs , Journal of School Health, October, 1985, yolume 55, Number 8, p 3 The SHEE study represents another valuable contribution to the existing body of knowledge on the impact of school hea,lth education- 5 It emphasizes the unl~ue role that health education plays in helping students a cquire. c he inf.or.tna4: ion neca:s..sa r : t for m'ak.ing wi:se decisions a nd {lrove& that ev'aluation of existing knowledge is ~- funddmental tq aurcicular plaguing and improve~~nt. education program the essential elementts of school health programs--must;, be identified and evaluated; specifically, health knowledge a.nd :i;t,s impact.on the health decisions ma.d-e by st'udents.. In t-bis way th e es.sent ial elements of healt~ eddcatfon programs can be identified, evaluated and pr.ovided with appropr.i;,at:e._ i.rtlqj~ma.tian. Health knowledge and ids impact on health decisions made by youth can then be investigated in order to draw conclusions about that particular programs' efficacy. Possession of information by an individual does not mean that correct decisions will automatically be macte. Student behaviors are effected by various psycho-social variahles within their peer-group. Genera~ly accepted information espoused by the peer group,even if inaccura~e, can influence d~cision making behaviors. Test instruments, 5 K. Howell,. R. Frye and D.Bibeau, comments from the Field ,Journal of School Health, October, 1985, Volume 55, Number 8, P 354. 4 designed to evaluate indi~idual seudent knowledge, can serve as a tool which m6nttors and manifests the quantity and quality of the general knowledge witt)in student gtoups. This informatton can then be used as one of the evalu iitiorf te'chniqu~s u aed to insu.r.e' tha t the info. r mati6n within the exis ting _prog ram r-emains current. Therefore, it i,~ impqrtant to know. w.berc an,.d how,_. r H.6 D.a.v..J. s u. a.r: r.1. s two hundred eighty-eight students ranging in age from eleven to ~ighteen to d~termine the sou~ces of a specific form of knowledge, sexual infqrmation. The data indicated tha~ friend~ were ~he most ~r~quenely ci~~~ source of ' sexu'ih fn'fortdat.f&rl fo!lo~ecr by tlte s6lido!. in a li.ke nrariner, g..enerct-:1:. sj:.uderit kn.owled19e could he a determining factor in the student decision making process. If peers do convey important information'to age mates in relatfon to oth~r health knowfedge areas, ie becomes imperative to develop compreh.ensive curricula that will provide stude6ts with cdrrect informati~~. Ib this way students witn p~oper information can have a positive role in inf'luencill'g'!: he beh aviors of peer,s. If the levei of individua1 health kn~~ledge can effect decision ~akirig when influenced by psychopoc1al 11 6 S M.. D a vi s and M B.. H a r r i s, Sex u a 1 Know 1 e d g e, Sex u.al Interests and Sources of SexuaX Information of Rural and Urban Adqte~cents from Three Cultures'', Adolescence,Volume 17, Summe~ 1982~ p. 478. 5 {nteraction, a return to a curricular emphasis on knowled~e, directed at risk taking behaviors, would be of value in the area of prevention. Such a curriculum would take advantage of the psychosocial influence of age mates within the peer group. S~atement of the Problem The purpos~- of this stud y was to comp-ar e the leval of Health knowledge of New Yor~ State students in &rades four, seven and ten with that of Michigan students in grades four, seven and ten. Hypotheses No statistically sig.nlfi.cant difference l ' exists between Health knowledge scores of fourth, s,eventh and tenth g~rad,e Ne-w, York St.ate students and those of Michigan s~udent& in the same gtade levels. Ho:)l.(.m 4 =,M.ny 4 - 'm 7 =)Any 7 Am 10=.}(nylO Ha:.4-(.m 4 =M,ny 4 p.. m 7 =}(RY 7.M,Ill 10 =AnyiO Significance of the Study An effective curriculum begins with the needs of the student and ends with a documentation of positive results. If He.:a.l.t'h-' Education is to be inrp.o rtant in improv!ng health behavio.r~ it ~ill be necessary to evaluate current knowledge status in order to improv e existing e-ulrricululll's... The te.s~ing of stud.ent knotvledg~ m-ay prove -to be an effective for~ oj pr~ram evaluation used by the health educator. 1 7 c.w. Higg~ns, J.O. Pris~\ and J.D. Dunn, 'A Survey of Health Education in Western Kentucky High Schools'', Journal of School HealLh, Volume 52, Number 3, March, 1982, p. 162. 6 Continu9us mpn~t~ring of student bealth knowledge levels in conj~n9tion w~th an appraisal of health attitudes and pr~ctige~ is th~ basis for curriculum revision. This evaluati~n process ~ust be specific enough to de t ~ c t ~.he. p 7; 9 b.\ ems, need s an ct in t e :r;; e s t s o f t be s tude n t s serviced by tbe program. Betng sensitive to the level of student koowledge can be a valuable tool in curriculum development. An assessment of student knowledge, supported by local school districts and conducted by health educators can serve as a basis for the development of an effective Health Education Curriculum, 8 Besides influencin~ positive decision making bebaviors wit-hin stud~l: veet: groups-; a doct!l.mexl't,.ed ~nowle j.g,e gain in t'u-rn ma..y.6ast-er a ' m o r-e pasiti:ve co.moun'ity p.erce-pt:iori o.f the health education p~ogram in the school. Because knowledge gains reported by the SHEE reached levels of effect sizes that are educationally significant by conventional stan dards of pedagory, 9 cognitive knowledge may be the basis of effective health education programs. By comparing New Yo~k State student Health Topic Attainment Rate percentages on the Michigan Educati~nal 8. M.L. DuShaw and S- Hansen,, C.urrent St~.tus ot Statewide School Health Education Programs in Michigan, Journal of School Health, Volume 53, Number 8, October, 1983, p L.W. Green, et al, op. cit., p. 300. 7 Asse~sm~nt Brograma test for Health Educa~ion with that of Mich~g~q students. 1~ is Qnticipated that thia study will (1) d~termine th~ he~l~h knowledge Qf students in selected New tor~ State schools (2) determln~!f there is a to~k &tate and Michigan (3} provide a basls for (QUure research in the area of student health knowledge in New York Strate Definition of Terms A Health Topic Attainment Rate 10 is a student t; .ercentage sco.re on. the HEAP test for l;lealth education. The Michigan Educational Assessment Program(MEAP) Test health knowledge in grades four, sev,en a,nd ten. 11 Health is a dynamic status that results f:rom an interacbion between hered~ty potential, environmental circumstance and Lifestyle selection. 12 A Needs Assessment is a systemic process by which a Healtll Educator determines student, curricular and program, goa,l s Michigan Department of Education, Health Education In,ter-pre.triv.e Rep,ort, Lansing:, Micll igan, July, 198,5, p. vi. 11 Ibid., p G.F. Carter and S.B. Wilson, Hy Health Status , Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Mn, 1982, p. 5. 8,., Knowledge, involving the re~all universals, is a method or pr~cess of specifics and by which patterns,, structures and s~tiings a~e created. Education fs ~the aggregate process by which students ~re 1nflu~dced by a selected and controlled environment for the' purp ose of acquiring 'knowle-dge-, de.:velopi.ng abilities, attitudes and behaviors that are accepted and valued by societ'y. A Curr~culum is a varied, sequential learning experi~nce supervised and provided by the sdhool fo~ the purpose of ex:iucating chil'dren in ways of knowledge and benavior. e.va:j:uat±cm'd..s a juctg.e.men tal ass ertion a~\lt t.he va.kue- :- of' a p.ro gram, C'u.rtl i'cul:unr.0~ indi'\1-idaa l' a.bi li t:f. Delim1nations of the Study The inves~igatlon was carried out under the following conditions. 1. The subjects used in th~s study consisted of six hundred twelve stu~ents from grades four (N = 156), seven (N 152), and ten (N. a 304). It was no~ be po,sible to matc h ~w '/ort state rourt'h, seventh and te'nth gra.d'ers with Michigan groups. Subjects were volunteered by district administrators froor thr'ee Mon r oe Count y sch&ol districts; ' Churchville-Chili ego, Hilton CSD and Spencerport CSD. 9 2. All classes were heterogeneously grouped without regard to racial, ethnic or socio-economic background. 3. All ;e,ts were admini~tered in the Fall ot the school ye'tr and,were m.acttine scored. Limitations of the Study This inves t' iga ti.on was ca rried out,under t'he following 1 Lm ~ t a t i 9 tl 1. No datj wes availabl~ concerning the make~up of the Michigan sample or tbe conditions under which the test was Basic Assumptions studen~$ wbp ta~e a H~glth ~d~cation cours~ in N~w York and ~1chiipn sh re certain general characteristics and therefore c~n be compared. 2. Based on the data provided by the Michigan Department o~ Education, the MEAP te~t is considered to be? vqlid and ~eliable test criterion for es timating stu i,enj;: health kn owlesfge of fourth, seventh. and tenth g.rade students. 3. T.h.e HTaK of seven,t;y-five. percent, although an arbitrary number d6cte rmined by the. Hichigan Department of Education, is an acceptable criterion for use with fourth, seventh and tenth grade students. 10 REVIEW Of RELATED LITERATURE ~esearch concerned w;th health knowledge, its relationship to attitudes, behavior and the role Health Educatton pla~s in tea~hing cog~itive unde~staqding is Lnc..omplet,e.,.. He..aith educ.a,tors have always be.j:ul, conc.e.rned with factual knowledge. However, modern educational methods have at times required health education programs to reduce knowledge to a subordinate position. ~.:,' ~ ' l As avail~bl~ technology accelerated past an individ tal's normal capacitv to absorb information, educa~ion was chall~nged to pxovtde ways t~ increase education pr{)grams neglected to teach association, iri'tegra:ti~n., c~r.re1a.tion and, structuring. The: r a p i d i t y with w&ich these changes occurred made the teaching of i, we 11 ness under s tanding s 11 d i f f i c u 1 t The trivial pursuit'' form of learning, where the end was more important than the means' dama~ed th e success rat e of I!!'any p.rograllrs. 11 0verall curriculum improveme'nt can n'6t be achieved by the introduction of crash programs or a patchwork approach. 1 1 Jf.H. Sliepcevich; Summary Report of a Nationwide Study of Health Instruction in the Public Schools ; School Health Equcation Study, \.Jashington, D.C., 1964, p. 12. Hea~th Knowledge The concept of knowledge i~ uniquely related to the educ~tional proces~. C9mpreJ1ensive kqowledge is a ~onstruct which g~v~s meaning and st~ucture to regularities in erist,en'ce 0 The' Pt;Of!'er empl)a.s is in edlrcation is this - sn.ru cture of kqowl;edge and the relat:j.oj;:q hip between il;s varjous factual elements that ma~e one id~a follow an ot he r. 2: Th~ inrp.ortance of factu.a;l. knqwledge' pervad.es both tre practical and theore~ical realm of he~tth e4ucation and is roo~ed in the very essen~e of education itself'. Knowledge in the infortpat;ional sense is fundamental t;q huma11 cognition anq required for ac9-.dem1.c. '. speculation and pragmatic i.nve;stigation. 3 evaluation has sou,ht to determine st~4ent I ' health knowledge. The School Health Edu~ation Study ( ) des~ribed th~ status of health inqtru~tio,n in United States publi~ schools and determined the heqlth knowledge, health ~ttitudes and health practices of various elementary and seconda~y scho~l s~udeats. One hundred thirty-five (135) school districts from thirty eight (38) states, randomly ~el~c~ed th~~~ classes at grade levels six, nine and twelve for the purpose of creating a subject popl. 2 J.S. &rune;;.: On k~owing: Essays for th~ 'Left' H~nd; Belnap Pre~s qf Harvard Qniversity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962, p K.
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