1 Gymnastics THE ROYAL MARINES 2 Student Notes Teacher Notes Acknowledgements This module was compiled with the assistance of: Lloyd Readhead BAGA National Coach, Men’s Gymnastics John White BAGA National Coach, Recreational Gymnastics Dave Rozell BAGA National Coach, Specialist Needs Thanks are the support given to this project. Editor: P. Edwards M.A. Prepared for the Royal Navy in Association with the British Gymnastics Association and produced by Education and Youth Limited, London. If ther
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    Gymnastics THE ROYAL MARINES  2 Student NotesTeacher Notes Acknowledgements  This module was compiled with the assistance of: Lloyd Readhead BAGA National Coach, Men’s Gymnastics  John White BAGA National Coach, Recreational Gymnastics  Dave Rozell BAGA National Coach, Specialist Needs  Thanks arethe support given to this project. Editor:    P. Edwards M.A. Prepared for the Royal Navy in Association with the BritishGymnastics Association and produced by Education and YouthLimited, London.If there is any support you feel the Royal Navy can give regarding thisproject please contact 0870 333 0423 CONTENTS VaultingFloorwork INTRODUCTION TO GYMNASTICS3SKILLS DEVELOPMENT SHEET4UNIT 1SAFETY5UNIT 2FLOORWORK6 FORWARD ROLLS6BACKWARD ROLLS8CARTWHEEL10HANDSTANDS11ROUND OFF OR ARAB SPRING12HANDSPRING13BACK FLIP OR FLIC FLAC14HEADSPRING15BACKWARD SOMERSAULT16FORWARD SOMERSAULT17 UNIT 3VAULTING18 THE PREJUMP AND TAKE OFF18DEVELOPING ARM THRUSTING STRENGTH ANDTECHNIQUE18SQUAT OR THROUGH VAULT19STRADDLE VAULT20HEADSPRING21NECK SPRING22BENT ARM OVERSWING23HANDSPRING VAULT (LONG ARM OVERSPRING)24CARTWHEEL VAULT WITH 1/4 TURN25YAMASHITA VAULT26 UNIT 4PHYSICAL CONDITIONING27UNIT 5MENTAL PREPARATION34UNIT 6THE GYMNASTIC PROGRAMME35UNIT 7PREVENTION OF INJURY36UNIT 8THE RULES AND REGULATIONS37UNIT 9HISTORY OF THE SPORT OF GYMNASTICS39UNIT 10CURRENT ISSUES40UNIT 11BRITISH GYMNASTICS AWARD SCHEMES42PUBLICATIONS43  3 The purpose of these notes is to present some guidelines for the safe development of the core elements in floor work and vaulting. There is usuallymore than one technique used in a particular skill. Those illustrated are extensively used and depict the desired concept of each skill. Introduction to Gymnastics Gymnastics is often considered to be a sport for the young, but peopleof all ages and abilities can participate. There has recently been atremendous growth in the area of pre-school groups where to 1 to 5year olds discover the foundations of human movement in a playfulenvironment. The children participate with their parents under thetuition of a trained leader. Participation can be at a recreational levelsimply for fitness and enjoyment and classes for adult beginners andretired competitors are growing in popularity.The competitive aspect of gymnastics makes it a very demanding andextremely technical sport which requires many hours of training andpreparation. It is generally thought that to achieve national standard, itwill require six years of training for females and nine years for males.The differences occur due to the normal sex-age characteristics ofphysical development and the late development of mature strengthrequired in the men’s sport. Preparation usually commences betweenthe ages of 6 and 10 years, during which period the development ofgood flexibility and postural control are the main aspects of training.The on-going process of training will include the development ofstrength, co-ordination, spatial awareness and the core gymnasticsmovement skills which are the foundation upon which high level andgood quality gymnastics are based. “Determination” and “Desire” arehowever the most important traits for successful participation in anysport and a number of top performers did not commence theirgymnastic training until their teenage years.The desire to participate in gymnastics may be associated withobvious gains in fitness but also in the sense of challenge andachievement which can be experienced at any level of ability. It alsooffers a rare opportunity for freedom of human movement andexpression of aesthetic and artistic qualities.In the UK it is possible to participate in a variety of gymnasticactivities including Men’s and Women’s Artistic Gymnastics, SportsAcrobatics, Rhythmic Gymnastics and Recreational Gymnastics.Recreational gymnastics encompasses pre-school gymnastics, schoolgymnastics and gymnastics for adult or veteran gymnasts. Peoplewith disabilities may also participate in both recreational andcompetitive gymnastics.Each aspect has its own set of apparatus requirements and regulations: Women’s Artistic Gymnastics: Vault, Asymmetric Bars, Beam, Floor. Men’s Artistic Gymnastics: Floor, Pommels, Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars,Horizontal Bar. Rhythmic Gymnastics: Ribbon, Ball, Hoop, Clubs, Rope. Sports Acrobatics: Tumbling, Male and Female Pairs, Female Trios,Mixed Pairs, Men’s Fours.Due to the complex nature of each activity, these notes will be confinedto the Floor work and Vaulting aspects of Men’s and Women’sgymnastics. The text is limited to those elements listed in the GCSEsyllabus and hence it covers only a few of the core skills in the totalsport of Gymnastics.As with most sports, the level of “fitness” will determine the level ofparticipation and degree of success within the sport. It is imperative thata thorough warm up and stretching period should precede each trainingsession. This will raise the body temperature, improve thecardiovascular system and increase respiratory rate. The ability of themuscles and connective tissue to be stretched without risk is improvedand anxiety is reduced.The risk of injury will also be greatly reduced through the training ofeffective and safe landings.Physical conditioning to produce the required level of fitness shouldalways precede the learning of new skills. Gymnastic skills should belearnt in a safe environment and a series of progressive exercises willaid the safe learning of skills.The suggested teaching model is: Physical Preparation    (flexibility strength) Progressive Skills  (development through part skills) Consolidation  (consistency and accuracy) Free Expression (discovering a variety of entry/ exit combinations)  4 Name of ModuleGymnastics Basic Skills: FloorworkForward rolls, backward rolls, cartwheels, handstands, round off and arabspring, handspring, back flip, flic flac, headspring, backward somersault,forward somersault (pages 6-17)Basic Skills: VaultingTake-off, squat or through vault, straddle vault, headspring, neck spring,bent arm overswing, handspring, cartwheel vault, yamashita vault (pages18-26)Physical ConditioningPower, speed, strength, flexibility, mental preparation (pages 27-34)Training SkillsRules and RegulationsStructure of eventsComposition of a floor routineApparatus dimensionsVaultingStructure of artistic gymnastic events (pages 37-38)For all other rules and information contact:British Amateur Gymnastic Association B.A.G.AThe beginning stage of learning Gymnastics is the exploratory phase,where the gymnast is attempting to learn the correct sequence ofmovements of all the basic skills e.g. forward rolls, handstands. Anumber of errors may be made and gymnasts will need feedback torecognise and correct those errors.At the intermediate stage the basic skills will be performed moreconsistently and fluently. A gymnast will now be able to link skillstogether and demonstrate improved strength, speed and flexibilityAt the advanced stage all basic skills are automatic and the gymnastwill concentrate on more advanced and detailed aspects of the skill.Competition will be a key element, whether this be competing againstself or others. Skills Development Sheet
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