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04 - CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets Exam 350-001 v3.0 (Sequeira, ISBN #1-58705-337-3).pdf

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CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets CHAPTER 1 General Networking Theory...................3 CHAPTER 2 Bridging and LAN Switching................10 CHAPTER 3 IP .............................................................24 CHAPTER 4 IP Routing...............................................39 CHAPTER 5 Quality of Service (QoS).......................76 CHAPTER 6 WAN ........................................................94 CHAPTER 7 IP Multicasting..........................
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  CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets CHAPTER 1General Networking Theory...................3CHAPTER 2Bridging and LAN Switching................10CHAPTER 3IP.............................................................24CHAPTER 4IP Routing...............................................39CHAPTER 5Quality of Service (QoS).......................76CHAPTER 6WAN........................................................94CHAPTER 7IP Multicasting.......................................99CHAPTER 8Security................................................109CHAPTER 9MPLS....................................................120CHAPTER 10IPv6.......................................................126 Anthony Sequeira ciscopress.com  ABOUT THE AUTHOR Anthony Sequeira ,CCIE RS No. 15626,possesses high-level certifi-cations from both Cisco and Microsoft. For the past 15 years,he haswritten and lectured to massive audiences about the latest in network-ing technologies. Anthony is a certified Cisco instructor with ThomsonNETg. He lives with his wife and daughter in Tampa,Florida. [ 2] © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 132 for more details. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets by Anthony Sequeira About the Technical ReviewerAbout the Author Leah Lynch ,CCIE RS No. 7220,is a product marketing engineer withSpirent Communications. Leah has more than 12 years of experiencein the IT industry,with 8 years focused on heterogeneous internetwork environments,including banking,retail,medical,government,manu-facturing,corporate,sales,network service providers,telecommunica-tions,and mobile wireless networks. Leah also holds several otherCisco certifications and is working on her Service Provider CCIE.  CHAPTER 1 General Networking Theory General Routing Concepts Link-state and distance vector protocols Distance vector ■ Examples:Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIPv1),RIPv2,Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) ■ Features periodic transmission of entire routing tables to directlyconnected neighbors ■ Mathematically compares routes using some measurement of distance ■ Features hop-count limitation Link State ■ Examples:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF),Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). ■ Sends local connection information to all nodes in the internet-work. [ 3] © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 132 for more details. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets by Anthony Sequeira ■ Forms adjacencies with neighboring routers that speak the sameprotocol; sends local link information to these devices. ■ Note that although this is flooding of information to all nodes,therouter is sending only the portion of information that deals withthe state of its own links. ■ Each router constructs its own complete “picture”or “map”of thenetwork from all of the information received. Hybrid ■ Example:Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) ■ Features properties of both distance vector and link-state routingprotocols Path vector protocol ■ Example:Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). ■ Path vector protocols are a subset of distance vector protocols;BGP uses “path vectors”or a list of all the autonomous systems aprefix has crossed to make metric decisions and to ensure a loop-free environment. ■ In addition to the autonomous system path list,an administratorcan use many other factors to affect the forwarding or receipt of traffic using BGP.  CHAPTER 1 Split horizon ■ Split horizon is a technique used by routing protocols to helpprevent routing loops. The split-horizon rule states that an inter-face will not send routing information out an interface from whichthe routing information was srcinally received. Split horizon cancause problems in some topologies,such as hub-and-spoke FrameRelay configurations. Summarization Summarization is the process in which the administrator collapsesmany routes with a long mask to form another route with a shortermask. Route summarization reduces the size of routing tables andmakes routing function more efficiently. Route summarization alsohelps make networks more stable by reducing the number of updatesthat are sent when subnets change state. Route summarization makesclassless interdomain routing (CIDR) possible. Variable-length subnetmasking (VLSM) promotes the use of route summarization. Somedynamic routing protocols engage in route summarization automati-cally for changes in a major classful network,whereas others do not.For any routing protocol within the scope of the CCIE written exam,anadministrator can disable any automatic summarization that might beoccurring and configure “manual”summarization.To engage in route summarization,find all the leftmost bits that are incommon and create a mask that encompasses them. An examplefollows. [ 4] © 2007 Cisco Systems Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 132 for more details. CCIE Routing and Switching Exam Quick Reference Sheets by Anthony Sequeira The following routes exist in the routing table—all routes use a 24-bitmask:10.108.48.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110000 0000000010.108.49.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110001 0000000010.108.50.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110010 0000000010.108.51.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110011 0000000010.108.52.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110100 0000000010.108.53.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110101 0000000010.108.54.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110110 0000000010.108.55.0 = 00001010 01101100 00110111 00000000Notice that the first 21 bits of the subnetwork IDs are all common.These can be masked off. You can use the single route entry for allthese subnetworks as follows:10.108.48.0/21 Classful and classless routing protocols Classful routing protocols are considered legacy and do not includesubnet mask information with routing updates. Examples of classfulrouting protocols are RIPv1 and IGRP. Because subnet mask informa-tion is not included in updates,consistency of the mask is assumedthroughout the network. Classful routing protocols also feature auto-matic summarization of routing updates when sent across a major
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